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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Spectroscopy
Author(s): David W. Ball
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Book Description

This Field Guide covers a broad spectrum of topics in the field of spectroscopy, condensing the subjects to their essentials. As such, novices can use this guide to obtain an overview of the field, and experts can use it as a quick reference. Beginning with basic definitions and explanations, this guide then describes the instruments that are used in the field-from filters, lenses, mirrors, and modulators, to monochromators, interferometers, and detectors. A third section outlines theory and methods as they relate to spectroscopy: the Fourier transform, quantum mechanics, approximation methods, nuclear magnetic resonance, and more. Additional features include a glossary of variables and symbols, and an equation summary.

Book Details

Date Published: 12 May 2006
Pages: 124
ISBN: 9780819463524
Volume: FG08
Errata

Table of Contents
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Glossary / x
Basics / 1
Spectroscopy Defined / 1
Spectrometer, Spectroscope, and Spectrograph / 2
Light as a Wave / 3
Light as a Particle / 5
The Electromagnetic Spectrum / 6
Maxwell's Equations of Electromagnetism / 7
Maxwell's Equations: General Form / 8
Spectroscopy and Regions of the Spectrum / 9
Polarization / 10
Polarization and Reflection / 11
Interactions of Light with Matter / 12
Index of Refraction / 13
Internal Reflection / 14
Dichroism / 15
Instrumental Aspects / 16
Light Sources / 16
Prisms / 17
Gratings / 18
Absorption Filters / 19
Interference Filters / 20
Types of Lenses: Convex / 21
Other Types of Lenses / 22
Mirrors / 23
Lens and Mirror Equations / 24
Modulators: Mechanical Choppers and Shutters / 25
Electro-Optical Modulators / 26
Magneto- and Acousto-Optical Modulators / 27
Other Components / 28
Grating Monochromators / 29
Prism Monochromators / 30
Michelson Interferometer / 31
Fabry-Perot Interferometer / 32
Detectors / 33
Photon Detectors / 34
Photomultiplier Tubes / 35
Multichannel Photon Detectors / 36
Multichannel Detectors: Charge-Transfer Devices / 37
Thermal Detectors / 38
Theory and Methods / 39
Fourier Transform / 39
Fourier Transform Spectroscopy / 40
Absorption / 41
Emission / 42
Magnetic Resonance / 43
Quantum Theory / 44
Quantum Theory of Light and Its Application / 45
Quantum Mechanics-Postulates / 46
Quantum Mechanics-More Postulates / 47
QM-Particle-in-a-Box / 48
QM-Harmonic Oscillator / 49
QM-Two-Dimensional Rotations / 50
QM-Three-Dimensional Rotations / 51
QM-The Hydrogen Atom: Setup / 52
QM-The Hydrogen Atom: Solutions / 53
QM-Other Systems / 54
Spin / 55
Approximation Methods-Variation Theory / 56
Approximation Methods-Perturbation Theory / 57
Approximation Methods Applied to Spectroscopy / 58
The Transition Moment / 59
Quantum-Mechanical Selection Rules / 60
Group Theory / 61
Plotting a Spectrum-The Abscissa / 62
Plotting a Spectrum-The Ordinate / 63
Baselines / 64
Beer's Law / 65
Linewidths / 66
Types of Line Broadening / 67
Noise / 68
Resolution / 69
Resolution in Fourier Transform Spectrometers / 70
Atomic Electronic Spectroscopy / 71
Atomic Term Symbols / 72
Electronic Spectra Selection Rules / 73
Atomic Emission Spectroscopy / 74
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy / 75
The Born-Oppenheimer Approximation / 76
Molecular Spectroscopy / 77
Diatomic Molecule Term Symbols / 78
Molecular Electronic Spectroscopy / 79
Hückel Approximations / 80
The Zeeman Effect / 81
The Anomalous Zeeman Effect / 82
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Theory / 83
NMR: The Chemical Shift / 84
NMR: Spin-Spin Splitting / 85
Electron Spin Resonance / 86
Rotational Spectroscopy / 87
Vibrational Spectroscopy / 88
Near- and Far-Infrared Spectroscopy / 89
Overtones and Combination Bands / 90
Rovibrational Spectroscopy / 91
Vibronic Spectroscopy / 92
Raman Spectroscopy / 93
Lasers / 94
Fluorescence / 95
Phosphorescence / 96
Photoelectron Spectroscopy / 97
Appendix / 98
Equation Summary / 98
Bibliography / 102
Index / 103

Preface

Of all the Field Guides published to date, this one may stand out due to its relatively broad topic: the field of spectroscopy. Indeed, entire field guides can be written on what is covered here in one or two pages (witness the two pages on polarization here versus an entire Field Guide devoted to that topic published previously). Whatever limitations this may impart on this volume, I accept them and expect that the reader will understand them, too.

This material is derived from several sources, including my own training in infrared and circular dichroism spectroscopy from Rice University and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; from courses I have taught in spectroscopy at Cleveland State University; and from personal research I conducted in the course of authoring "The Baseline" column in Spectroscopy magazine since 1994. Writing is a form of self-education, and I have been blessed with fast (though not always accurate) typing skills with which I can benefit by increased writing and, as a result, learning.

Thanks go to my colleague, John F. Turner II, for his review of the initial Table of Contents. I would also like to thank reviewers Brad Stone of San Diego State University and Vidi Saptari of MKS Instruments, Inc., for their thoughtful comments on the manuscript, and John E. Greivencamp of the University of Arizona, series editor, for leadership in the Field Guides series.

This Field Guide is dedicated to my family: my wife, Gail, and my sons, Stuart and Casey.

David W. Ball
Department of Chemistry
Cleveland State University


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