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Fundamentals of Optics: An Introductory Course
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This book presents a simple yet elegant introduction to classical optics focused primarily on establishing fundamental concepts for students new to the field. With examples demonstrating the use of optics in a wide range of practical applications, it reflects the pedagogical approach used by Prof. Mejía-Barbosa to teach his Fundamentals of Optics course at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. This book will prove useful for undergraduate and graduate students of physics, optical science and engineering, and any other related science or engineering discipline that deals with optics at some level. Readers are invited to study the fundamental principles of optics and find pleasure in learning about this fascinating and vibrant field. Translated by Herminso Villarraga-Gómez.


Book Details

Date Published: 13 January 2023
Pages: 330
ISBN: 9781510657809
Volume: PM359

Table of Contents
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1 Geometrical Optics
1.1 Rays or waves
     1.1.1 Camera obscura
     1.1.2 Newton's corpuscular theory of light
     1.1.3 Huygens' wave theory
     1.1.4 Graphical ray tracing
1.2 Fermat's principle
     1.2.1 Modern formulation of Fermat's principle
     1.2.2 Rays and wavefronts
     1.2.3 Image from a point source
1.3 Refracting surfaces
     1.3.1 Modeling the cornea of a human eye
     1.3.2 Refraction at spherical surfaces
     1.3.3 Focal lengths and focal points
     1.3.4 Focal planes
     1.3.5 Paraxial imaging of extended objects
     1.3.6 Optical power and vergence
1.4 Reflecting surfaces
     1.4.1 Ray tracing for spherical mirrors
     1.4.2 The parabolic mirror
1.5 Lenses: thin lens approximation
     1.5.1 Ray tracing for thin lenses
     1.5.2 Newton's lens equation
     1.5.3 Real and virtual images domain
     1.5.4 Focal planes in thin lenses
     1.5.5 Ray tracing for oblique rays
1.6 Lenses: principal planes
     1.6.1 A lens system
1.7 Stops and pupils
     1.7.1 Aperture stop
     1.7.2 Pupils
     1.7.3 Marginal and chief rays
     1.7.4 Field stop, field of view, and angle size
1.8 Some optical instruments
     1.8.1 The human eye (schematic representation)
     1.8.2 Magnifiers
     1.8.3 The telescope
     1.8.4 The microscope
1.9 Monochromatic optical aberrations
     1.9.1 Field curvature
     1.9.2 Spherical aberration
     1.9.3 Distortion
     1.9.4 Astigmatism and coma

2 Polarization
2.1 Plane waves and polarized light
     2.1.1 Maxwell's equations with plane waves
     2.1.2 Irradiance
     2.1.3 Natural light and polarized light
     2.1.4 Elliptical, circular, and linear polarization
     2.1.5 Polarization: general case
2.2 Dichroism polarization
     2.2.1 Linear polarizer
     2.2.2 Malus' law
2.3 Polarization by reflection
     2.3.1 Laws of reflection and refraction
     2.3.2 Fresnel equations
     2.3.3 Reflectance and transmittance
2.4 Polarization by total internal reflection
     2.4.1 Total internal reflection
     2.4.2 Reflectance and transmittance
2.5 Polarization with birefringent materials
     2.5.1 Phase retarder plates
     2.5.2 Birefringent crystals
     2.5.3 Refraction in crystals
     2.5.4 Polarizing prisms
2.6 Vectors and Jones matrices

3 Interference
3.1 Interference and coherence
     3.1.1 Degree of coherence
     3.1.2 Interference and coherence
     3.1.3 Coherence length
3.2 Interference of two plane waves
     3.2.1 Interference with inclined plane waves
     3.2.2 Displacement of interference fringes
     3.2.3 Interferogram visibility
3.3 Interference of two spherical waves
     3.3.1 Circular fringes with the Michelson interferometer
     3.3.2 Parallel fringe approximation with the Michelson interferometer
3.4 Practical aspects in the Michelson interferometer
     3.4.1 Laboratory interferometer
3.5 Interference in a plate of parallel faces
     3.5.1 Stokes relations
     3.5.2 Multiple-wave interference
     3.5.3 Two-wave interference
3.6 Interference from N point sources
     3.6.1 Plane wave approximation
3.7 Interference with extended light sources
     3.7.1 Artificial extended sources
3.8 Young interferometer I
     3.8.1 Division of wavefront and division of amplitude
3.9 Other interferometers
     3.9.1 Fabry–Pérot interferometer
     3.9.2 Antireflective thin film
     3.9.3 Newton and Fizeau interferometers

4 Diffraction
4.1 Huygens–Fresnel principle
     4.1.1 Fresnel zones
     4.1.2 Fresnel treatment results
4.2 Diffraction integral
     4.2.1 Kirchhoff integral theorem
     4.2.2 Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction
     4.2.3 Sommerfeld diffraction
4.3 Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction
     4.3.1 Fraunhofer diffraction
     4.3.2 Fresnel diffraction
     4.3.3 Some examples
4.4 Young Interferometer II
     4.4.1 Effect of the size of the diffraction aperture
     4.4.2 Effect of light source size
4.5 Image formation with diffraction
     4.5.1 Image of a point (source) object
     4.5.2 Resolution in the image (two points)
     4.5.3 Image of an extended object
4.6 Diffraction gratings

A Ray tracing

B Refractive index

C Optical glasses

D Chromatic aberrations

E Prisms

F Polarization ellipse

This book presents lectures on classical optics, based on the Fundamentals of Optics course that I have been teaching for 12 years in the Physics Department of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNAL) at Bogotá. At first, I occasionally taught these lectures as an elective course in the Physics undergraduate program. Beginning in the fall of 2009 through the fall of 2017, I taught the same lectures each semester as an optative regular course of four hours per week in a 16-week semester format. The content of the course was based on my own research experience in the field of applied optics, which was enriched at the Centro de Investigaciones en Óptica, México, where I pursued my Ph.D. in Optics (1998–2001). This book comprises four chapters: Geometrical Optics, Polarization, Interference, and Diffraction, each consisting of several sections. Each section corresponds to a lecture of two hours. The book includes 30 sections and six appendices.

I have written this book to provide students of physics, optics, and engineering with a basic understanding of the main topics related to geometrical and physical optics. For further reading on classical optics, students may consult other well-known textbooks such as Fundamentals of Optics, Fourth Edition, by Jenkins and White (McGraw-Hill Education, 2001), Optics, Fifth Edition, by Hecht (Pearson, 2016), and Principles of Optics, Sixth Edition, by Born and Wolf (Pergamon Press, 1980).

I would like to thank UNAL for granting me a sabbatical year (February 2018 to February 2019), during which I was able to write this book.

Yobani Mejía-Barbosa
Bogotá, D. C., Colombia
March 2021

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