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Spie Press Book

Modern Optics Drawings: The ISO 10110 Companion
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Book Description

The international standard for optics drawing notations, ISO 10110, uses a set of coded notations to indicate optical tolerances and requirements to mitigate any ambiguity in an optics drawing. This set of notations can be very confusing for the uninitiated, but once understood, it simplifies communication between designer and manufacturer.

This book provides a foundation for understanding the fundamentals of ISO 10110. It is meant as a guide for users to familiarize themselves with the notation and symbology, leading to a better understanding of the ISO 10110 drawing notation system. Its purpose is to explain not only the ISO 10110 drawing format but also the various other standards that enable a greater understanding and implementation of ISO 10110. Each chapter discusses different subjects of optical properties and tolerances, showing the implementation of ISO 10110 through various examples, each highlighting a separate subject or tolerance on an optical component drawing. A detailed example of an optical system is also provided.


Book Details

Date Published: 9 February 2022
Pages: 230
ISBN: 9781510647305
Volume: PM346

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents



Chapter 1 Drawing Notation and Default Tolerances
1.1 Background
1.2 Differences between ISO and US Standards
1.3 Overview of Coded Notation
1.4 Fundamental Information
1.5 Table and Drawing Field
1.6 Indications on Drawings
1.7 Subassemblies
1.8 Non-Toleranced Data (Default Tolerances)
1.9 Discussion of Other Standards in Use
     1.9.1 MIL-STD-34
     1.9.2 ASME/ANSI Y14.18M
1.10 Drawing Example

Chapter 2 Optical Materials
2.1 Background
2.2 Finished Part versus Raw Material
2.3 Overview of Material Properties
     2.3.1 Refractive index
     2.3.2 Stress birefringence
     2.3.3 Bubbles and inclusions
     2.3.4 Homogeneity
     2.3.5 Striae
2.4 Indications on Drawings
     2.4.1 Material property notation
     2.4.2 Stress birefringence
     2.4.3 Bubbles and inclusions
     2.4.4 Homogeneity and striae
     2.4.5 Material tolerance notation on ISO 10110 drawings
2.5 Infrared versus Visible Materials
2.6 Drawing Example
     2.6.1 Material property notation
     2.6.2 Stress birefringence
     2.6.3 Bubbles and inclusions
     2.6.4 Homogeneity and striae

Chapter 3 Surface Figure and Form
3.1 Background
3.2 Units
3.3 Indications on Drawings
     3.3.1 General quantifiers
     3.3.2 RMS quantifiers
     3.3.3 Peak-to-valley quantifiers
     3.3.4 Slope quantifiers
     3.3.5 Zernike coefficient quantifiers
     3.3.6 Table notation
3.4 Surface Figure
3.5 Zernike
3.6 Component or System Wavefront
3.7 Drawing Example

Chapter 4 Surface Texture: Roughness and Waviness
4.1 Background
     4.1.1 The language of roughness
     4.1.2 Form, waviness, and roughness
     4.1.3 Origin of roughness symbols in ISO 10110
4.2 Indications on Drawings
     4.2.1 Polish grades
     4.2.2 Band-limited RMS roughness and waviness notations
     4.2.3 Slope tolerance notations
     4.2.4 Power spectral density notations
     4.2.5 Areal versions of roughness and waviness specifications
     4.2.6 Table notation
     4.2.7 Differences in slope using Part 5 and Part 8
4.3 Meaningful Surface Texture Specifications
     4.3.1 Spatial bands and RMS calculations
     4.3.2 Meaningful roughness and waviness specifications
     4.3.3 Considerations when choosing a spatial band
4.4 Drawing Example

Chapter 5 Surface Imperfection Tolerances
5.1 Background
5.2 Indications on Drawings
     5.2.1 Dimensional method drawing notation and interpretation
     5.2.2 Visibility method drawing notation and interpretation
5.3 Meaningful Surface Imperfection Specifications
     5.3.1 Cosmetic blemishes
     5.3.2 Scatter and diffraction effects
5.4 Inspection for Surface Imperfections
     5.4.1 Test method
     5.4.2 Inspecting to the dimensional method
     5.4.3 Inspecting to the visibility method
5.5 Drawing Example

Chapter 6 Laser Damage
6.1 Background
     6.1.1 A word of caution
6.2 Units
6.3 Indications on Drawings
6.4 Test Methods
6.5 Drawing Example

Chapter 7 Surface Treatment and Coating
7.1 Background
7.2 Types of Optical Coatings
     7.2.1 Reflective
     7.2.2 Antireflective
     7.2.3 Absorbing filters
     7.2.4 Attenuator
     7.2.5 Beamsplitter
     7.2.6 Bandpass and band rejection filters
     7.2.7 Long and short pass filters
     7.2.8 Polarizer
     7.2.9 Phase changing
     7.2.10 Laser optic
7.3 Indications on Drawings
7.4 Standard Coatings
7.5 Surface Treatments
7.6 Testing and Durability
     7.6.1 Durability testing indications on drawings
     7.6.2 Environmental changes
     7.6.3 Adhesion and abrasion test methods
7.7 Drawing Example

Chapter 8 Centering and Tilt Tolerances
8.1 Background
8.2 Datum Definitions
     8.2.1 Datum notation
     8.2.2 Datum construction
8.3 Coordinate Systems
8.4 Aspheric and Freeform Element Centration Factors
8.5 Indications on Drawings
     8.5.1 Datum axis
     8.5.2 Datum point
     8.5.3 Optical centering tolerance
     8.5.4 Nonoptical centering tolerance
8.6 Explicit versus Implicit Indication Examples
8.7 Fabrication Explanation
8.8 Drawing Example

Chapter 9 Nonspherical Surfaces
9.1 Background
9.2 Using ISO Standards for Nonspherical Profile Surfaces
9.3 Defining Nominal Surfaces with ISO 10110
     9.3.1 Equations for rotationally invariant aspheric surfaces in ISO 10110-12
     9.3.2 Formulas for rotationally variant aspheric surfaces in ISO 10110-12
     9.3.3 General surfaces in ISO 10110-19
9.4 Indications on Drawings
     9.4.1 Per ISO 10110-12
     9.4.2 Per ISO 10110-19
9.5 Drawing Examples

Chapter 10 System Evaluation
10.1 Background
10.2 Table of Generally Useful System Performance Standards
10.3 Selection of Specific System-Performance Metrics
     10.3.1 Finding an appropriate standard
     10.3.2 Wavefront error
     10.3.3 Resolution
     10.3.4 Distortion
     10.3.5 Transmittance
     10.3.6 Stray light
     10.3.7 Relative illumination
10.4 Indications

Chapter 11 Environmental Testing
11.1 Background
11.2 Testing Sequence and Evaluation
11.3 Indications
11.4 Overview of Environments
11.5 Test Methods
     11.5.1 Temperature and humidity
     11.5.2 Mechanical stress
     11.5.3 Atmospheric pressure and immersion
     11.5.4 Rain
     11.5.5 Dew, hoarfrost, and ice
     11.5.6 Salt mist
     11.5.7 Dust
     11.5.8 Acid atmosphere
     11.5.9 Solar weathering
     11.5.10 Mold
     11.5.11 Contamination
     11.5.12 Combined environments
11.6 Testing Equipment
11.7 Notation of Environmental Test Parameters

Chapter 12 Standards in Practice
12.1 System Parameters
12.2 Optical Design and Tolerance Analysis
     12.2.1 Optical design
     12.2.2 Optical tolerances
12.3 Optical Element Drawings
     12.3.1 Doublet optical element
     12.3.2 Aspheric optical element
     12.3.3 Spherical optical element
12.4 Optical Assembly Drawing
12.5 Expected Deliverable
     12.5.1 Transmitted wavefront test report
     12.5.2 Optical system transmittance test report
     12.5.3 Environmental test report

Epilogue: The Path Forward



The purpose of this book is to provide optical engineers, fabricators, and all parties in between a better understanding of the ISO 10110 drawing standard, and how to use the standard to create modern optical drawings. The authors presume that the reader has access to all parts of ISO 10110 and associated standards, and at least a basic familiarity with optics component technical drawings.

The world of standards is very small, and volunteer-based. Those who work on these committees are trying to do the right thing for our industry. Those few people are willing to take the time to draft, edit, and review these standards. Most of the time the result of their efforts is the result of compromise, and often it is far from perfect. Pursuit of an international standard that reflects the diversity of opinions, applications, and needs of the community comes at a price.

The first version of ISO 10110 was published in 1995 and has been the subject of multiple revisions, additions, and subtractions over the past 25 years. Today, there are twelve parts; 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, and 19. Because of this international effort over the past fifteen years, the ISO 10110 drawing standards have become a truly international standard reflecting the needs of the global optics community. It is vastly better today than in 1995 or 2005, and much more in harmony with US industry.

Even so, the standards can be difficult to read, more complex than we would like, and sometimes seem unfamiliar and unfriendly. We have written this book as a friendly guide to unfamiliar language, symbols, and a way of thinking about optics tolerances and specifications. However, the book is meant as a guide - not a replacement - for reading the standards themselves.

Additionally, there are a half-dozen other standards that are essential to using ISO 10110, and even more that can be used to make ISO 10110 more effective.As a result, this book is structured in chapters by subject, rather than by part of 10110, with related standards grouped within a chapter. Many practical examples are provided with a view toward a complete adoption of the methodology of standardized optics drawings including the drawing notation standards; and the metrology, environmental, and system performance test standards. It is the authors' hope that the book is readable enough to be read and understood by the uninitiated, and that the book serves as a useful reference or guide to users of the standard as they navigate the details of full implementation.

Eric Herman
David Aikens
Richard N. Youngworth
September 2021

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