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Spie Press Book

Short-Wavelength Infrared Windows for Biomedical Applications
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Book Description

The discovery and use of new optical windows where short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) light can be transmitted between areas of intense water absorption is a major development in photonics. This book covers biomedical uses of light at the conventionally used first and second optical windows, and, in particular, explores emerging applications of SWIR light at a third and a fourth optical window (at 1600–1870 nm and 2100–2350 nm, respectively) in the SWIR range. Diagnostic techniques that utilize these windows are reviewed, as are applications to cancer and diseases of organs such as the heart, brain, and skin. The book ends with an extensive discussion of the potential uses of artificial intelligence to enhance the ability to study these diseases at SWIR optical windows.

Book Details

Date Published: 1 March 2022
Pages: 610
ISBN: 9781510646230
Volume: PM336

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

Acronyms and Abbreviations


1 Optical Properties of Tissues Using SWIR Light
Francisco J. Salgado-Remacha, Sebastián Jarabo, and Ana Sánchez-Cano
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Optical Properties of Major Tissue Components
      1.2.1 SWIR light sources and detectors
1.3 Novel SWIR Supercontinuum Source
1.4 Effective Filtering of Scattered Light
      1.4.1 Experimental setup for direct light measurement
      1.4.2 Theory
      1.4.3 Comparison of both experimental methods for assessment of the attenuation coefficient in a scattering media       phantom
1.5 Spectral Attenuation Measurements of Brain and Retinal Tissues in the SWIR Region: Experiment I
      1.5.1 Materials and methods
      1.5.2 Results and discussion
      1.5.3 Conclusions from experiment I
1.6 Measurement of Optical Properties of ex vivo Brain Tissues in the SWIR Range: Experiment II
      1.6.1 Theory
      1.6.2 Experimental procedure
      1.6.3 Results and discussion
      1.6.4 Comparison with the literature and final remarks
1.7 Conclusion

2 Luminescence Nanothermometry and Photothermal Conversion Efficiency for Particles Operating in the SWIR Region
Albenc Nexha, Joan Josep Carvajal, and Maria Cinta Pujol
2.1 Light–Matter Interactions
2.2 Luminescence Nanothermometry in the SWIR Region
      2.2.1 QD-based luminescent nanothermometers
      2.2.2 TM-based luminescent nanothermometers
      2.2.3 Lanthanide-based luminescent nanothermometers
2.3 Photothermal Conversion Agents
      2.3.1 Self-assessed ex vivo photothermal conversion agents
2.4 Concluding Remarks

3 SWIR Properties of Rare-Earth-Doped Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications
Yang Sheng, Zhenghuan Zhao, and Mei Chee Tan
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Design and Synthesis of Rare-Earth-Doped Nanoparticles (REDNs)
      3.2.1 Materials selection for host and dopants
      3.2.2 Core/shell structure
      3.2.3 Synthesis methods
3.3 Upconversion and SWIR for Biomedical Photoluminescence Imaging
      3.3.1 Upconversion photoluminescence imaging
      3.3.2 SWIR imaging
3.4 Photoacoustic Imaging
3.5 Multifunctional Platforms Based on SWIR-Emitting REDNs
      3.5.1 REDN-based multimodal imaging
      3.5.2 REDN-based theranostic platforms
3.6 Toxicity
3.7 Summary and Perspectives

4 Short-Wave Infrared Meso-Patterned Imaging for Quantitative and Label-Free Tissue Characterization
Yanyu Zhao, Anahita Pilvar, Mark C. Pierce, and Darren Roblyer
4.1 Introduction to SWIR-Meso-Patterned Imaging
4.2 The Unique Capabilities of SWIR Light for Quantifying Water and Lipid Content in Tissue
4.3 SWIR-MPI Instrumentation
4.4 Advantages of SWIR-MPI in Probing Depth and Spatial Resolution
4.5 Examples of Potential Biomedical Applications for SWIR-MPI
4.6 Future Directions

5 Short-Wavelength Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging for Biomedical Applications
Lise Lyngsnes Randeberg, Julio Hernández, and Emilio Catelli
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Medical Hyperspectral Imaging
5.3 Hyperspectral Instrumentation and Setup
5.4 Hyperspectral Data Collection
5.5 Hyperspectral Data Analysis
5.6 Data Analysis and Simulations
5.7 Chemometric Tools and Methods from Spectroscopy
      5.7.1 Spectral preprocessing
      5.7.2 Unsupervised methods
      5.7.3 Supervised method: regression
5.8 Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

6 VIS–SWIR Wideband Lens-Free Microscopic Imaging
Ziduo Lin, Abdulkadir Yurt, Geert Vanmeerbeeck, Murali Jayapala, Zhenxiang Luo, Jiwon Lee, Joo Hyoung Kim, Vladimir Pejovic, Epimitheas Georgitzikis, Pawel Malinowski, and Andy Lambrechts
6.1 Introduction
6.2 System Development and Evaluation
      6.2.1 System development
      6.2.2 Quantum dot sensor/dd>
      6.2.3 System performance evaluation
6.3 Applications
      6.3.1 Silicon inspection and measurement
      6.3.2 Cell and tissue imaging
      6.3.3 Wide-range multispectral LFI
6.4 Future Prospects


7 SWIR Fluorescence and Monte Carlo Modeling of Tissues for Medical Applications
Tatsuto Iida, Shunsuke Kiya, Kosuke Kubota, Akitoshi Seiyama, Takashi Jin, and Yasutomo Nomura
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Monte Carlo Models in Multilayered Media (MCML)
      7.2.1 Calculation routine
      7.2.2 SWIR photon migration
7.3 Fluorescence Monte Carlo Simulation
      7.3.1 Point source of fluorescence MCML for cerebral angiography
      7.3.2 Spherical source of fluorescence MCML for breast cancer
7.4 SWIR Fluorescence Monte Carlo Model in Voxelized Media (MCVM) for Breast Cancer
      7.4.1 The breast model
      7.4.2 Image processing and implementation of the model
      7.4.3 Excitation gradient
      7.4.4 Setting optical parameters that reflect duct morphology
      7.4.5 SWIR for detection of small breast cancer in deep tissue
7.5 Conclusions and Perspectives

8 Multimodal SWIR Laser Imaging for Assessment and Detection of Urothelial Carcinomas
Gustavo Castro-Olvera, Simone Morselli, Mauro Gacci, Sergio Serni, and Pablo Loza-Alvarez
8.1 Introduction
      8.1.1 Epidemiology
      8.1.2 Aetiology
      8.1.3 Histopathology and staging
      8.1.4 Clinical presentation
      8.1.5 Diagnosis
      8.1.6 Treatment
      8.1.7 Diagnostic needs in clinical practice
8.2 Role of Multimodal SWIR Laser Imaging
      8.2.1 SWIR
      8.2.2 Multimodal microscopy
      8.2.3 Nonlinear optics for microscopy
      8.2.4 Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF)
      8.2.5 Second-harmonic generation (SHG)
      8.2.6 Third-harmonic generation (THG)
8.3 SWIR Optical Windows
      8.3.1 First biological window
      8.3.2 Second and third biological windows
8.4 Damage and Image Optical Thresholds
8.5 Conclusion

9 SWIR Fluorescence Endoscopy for Tumor Imaging
Yongkuan Suo, Hongguang Liu, and Zhen Cheng
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Endoscopic Imaging
9.3 SWIR Fluorescence Endoscopic Imaging

10 Short-Wavelength Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging to Assess Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors during Surgery
Toshihiro Takamatsu, Hiroaki Ikematsu, Hiroshi Takemura, Hideo Yokota, and Kohei Soga
10.1 Short-Wavelength Infrared Imaging
10.2 Hyperspectral Imaging
10.3 Data Processing Methods for Hyperspectral Imaging
10.4 Distinction of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors by SWIR-HSI
10.5 Wavelength Band Reduction Method for Hyperspectral Data
10.6 Development of SWIR-HSI Devices for Clinical Applications
10.7 Summary


11 SWIR for the Assessment of Heart Failure
Aaron G. Smith, Shona Stewart, Marlena B. Darr, Robert C. Schweitzer, Matthew Nelson, Patrick J. Treado, and J. Christopher Post
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Current Methods of Heart Failure Patient Assessment
11.3 Molecular Chemical Imaging
11.4 Application of SWIR-MCI to Heart Failure Space
11.5 SWIR Clinical Studies Results
      11.5.1 Introduction and clinical perspective
      11.5.2 Methods and results
11.6 Discussion
11.7 Future Directions

12 Transparent Polycrystalline Ceramic Cranial Implant with Photonic Functionality in the SWIR
Santiago Camacho-López, Nami Davoodzadeh, David L. Halaney, Juan A. Hernández-Cordero, Guillermo Aguilar, Gabriel R. Castillo, Antonio Cisneros- Martínez, Beatriz Coyotl-Ocelotl, Roger Chiu, Julio C. Ramírez-San-Juan, and Rubén Ramos-García
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Theranostic Cranial Implant for Hyperspectral Light Delivery and Microcirculation Imaging without Scalp Removal
      12.2.1 Ex vivo proof of concept: optical transmittance measurements
      12.2.2 In vivo demonstration of optical access for LSI of brain microvasculature
12.3 Femtosecond Laser-Written Waveguides in nc-YSZ for WttB in the SWIR
      12.3.1 Waveguide writing
      12.3.2 Depressed cladding waveguides: discrete versus continuous
      12.3.3 Characterization of waveguides for SWIR
12.4 Imaging through Highly Scattering Media
      12.4.1 Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI)
      12.4.2 Wavefront shaping: focusing light through a ceramic cranial implant
      12.4.3 Single-pixel imaging (SPI)
      12.4.4 Lensless camera
12.5 Optical Fiber Probes for Diagnostics and Therapeutics
      12.5.1 Fiber-optic temperature sensors
      12.5.2 Fiber-optic polymer microbubble sensors for temperature and deformation
      12.5.3 Photothermal probes
12.6 Conclusion

13 SWIR Hyperspectral Imaging to Assess Neurocognitive Disorders Using Blood Plasma Samples
Raquel Leon, Abian Hernandez, Himar Fabelo, Samuel Ortega, Francisco Balea-Fernández, and Gustavo M. Callico
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Materials and Methods for Generating a Hyperspectral SWIR Blood Plasma Database
      13.2.1 Blood plasma sample preparation and HS SWIR setup for data acquisition
      13.2.2 HS image preprocessing
      13.2.3 Blood plasma HS dataset partition
      13.2.4 Statistical preprocessing approach
13.3 Processing Framework of HS SWIR Blood Plasma Samples
      13.3.1 Machine learning approach
      13.3.2 Deep learning approach
      13.3.3 Evaluation metrics
13.4 Experimental Results and Discussion
      13.4.1 Validation classification results
      13.4.2 Test classification results
      13.4.3 Limitations
13.5 Conclusions

14 Hyperspectral SWIR Imaging of Skin Inflammation
Leonid Shmuylovich and Mikhail Y. Berezin
14.1 Introduction
      14.1.1 Contact dermatitis as a model inflammatory skin disease
      14.1.2 Skin imaging landscape
14.2 Extending Beyond the Visible and Near-Infrared to the SWIR
14.3 SWIR Hyperspectral Imaging of Allergic Contact Dermatitis
      14.3.1 HSI hardware and software for image analysis
      14.3.2 Applying SWIR-HSI and IDCube analysis to ACD
      14.3.3 Evidence of pigmentation-independent imaging in the SWIR spectral range
      14.3.4 Designing SWIR multispectral imaging from hyperspectral data
14.4 Conclusions

15 Use of a SWIR Otoscope in the Assessment of Pediatric and Other Conditions
Nirvikalpa Natarajan, Yu-Jin Lee, and Tulio A. Valdez
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Middle Ear Anatomyg
15.3 Pathophysiology of Middle Ear Infections
15.4 Diagnosis: Current Modalities and Challenges
15.5 SWIR
15.6 Preclinical Studies: Optical Properties of the Human Tympanic Membrane
15.7 Preclinical Studies to Evaluate SWIR Imaging
      15.7.1 Ex vivo analysis of human tympanic fluid
      15.7.2 Analysis of a middle ear fluid phantom in a middle ear model
15.8 Fluorescence Chemical Sensors in Conjunction with SWIR Imaging Tools for Detecting Otitis Media in a Murine Model
15.9 SWIR Otoscope Design
15.10 Clinical Studies
      15.10.1 SWIR imaging of human middle ear anatomy in adults
      15.10.2 SWIR otoscopy in a pediatric population
15.11 Conclusion

16 Use of an OCT System in the Short-Wavelength Infrared Region: Applications
Pauline John, Vani Damodaran, and Nilesh J. Vasa
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
      16.2.1 Basic principles of the OCT technique
      16.2.2 Different types of OCT systems
16.3 Application I: SWIR OCT for Dental Imaging
      16.3.1 Dental caries
      16.3.2 Imaging of dental caries
      16.3.3 Restoration and secondary caries
16.4 Application II: SWIR OCT for Glucose Monitoring in the Anterior Chamber of the Human Eye
      16.4.1 Diabetes
      16.4.2 Glucose monitoring techniques
      16.4.3 Glucose monitoring using a supercontinuum laser source in the anterior chamber of a human eye model
16.5 Conclusion

17 SWIR Imaging of Lesions on Tooth Surfaces
Daniel Fried
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Optical Properties of Dental Hard Tissues and Lesion Contrast at SWIR Wavelengths
17.3 Detection of Caries Lesions on Proximal and Occlusal Surfaces
17.4 Detection of Caries Lesions and Dental Calculus on Root Surfaces
17.5 Detection of Secondary Caries
17.6 Characterization of Developmental Defects
17.7 Imaging Cracks in Teeth
17.8 Assessment of Lesion Activity
17.9 Summary


18 Advances in SWIR Deep Tissue Imaging Using Machine Learning
Laura A. Sordillo and Diana C. Sordillo
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR)
18.3 Deep Learning Models
      18.3.1 Overview of deep learning
      18.3.2 Popular DL models in biophotonics
18.4 Machine Learning Techniques, SWIR, and Disease
      18.4.1 Machine learning and biophotonics
      18.4.2 Machine learning and SWIR
18.5 Conclusion



One of the most exciting, recent developments in photonics, particularly in regards to its use in medicine and disease, is the utilization of light at wavelengths beyond the visible range and the slightly longer range of short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) wavelengths at 1100–1350 nm, now known as the second optical window. Once ignored because of a lack of sensitive detectors, a third (at 1600–1870 nm) and fourth (at 2100–2350 nm) optical window are now being utilized extensively. These wavelengths are situated at areas between water peak maxima (where absorption of light is reduced). Due to minimal absorption and scattering of light at these wavelengths, the use of these SWIR optical windows can provide less blurring, better-contrast images, and much deeper penetration into tissue media compared with visible light.

With the use of these windows, extensive progress has been made in the study of diseases such as cancer, heart failure, neurocognitive disorders, and diseases of the bone, eyes, skin, and teeth. In Part I of this book, investigators review new and emerging techniques based on SWIR light, including the fabrication and use of SWIR nanoparticles as luminescent nanothermometers and photothermal agents, and recent advances in the design, structure, and SWIR-related biomedical applications of rare-earth doped nanoparticles (REDNs). REDNs are among the most exceptionally bright and biocompatible SWIR emitters. SWIR imaging techniques—including SWIR hyperspectral imaging for biomedical applications, and a novel wideband (VIS+SWIR) digital holographic microscopic method, based on a novel quantum-dot (QD) image sensor—are also discussed.

In Part II of this book, we explore biomedical applications that employ the SWIR optical windows for the assessment and detection of cancer. SWIR fluorescence and Monte Carlo modeling of breast cancer tissues can reveal important information on how SWIR light interacts with complex media. Recent advances in the study of urothelial carcinoma, a cancer that recurs frequently, are reviewed. SWIR light with multimodal microscopy can be utilized as a minimally invasive diagnostic technique for evaluation of this cancer. Investigators also show how SWIR light can be coupled with fluorescence endoscopy for tumor imaging, and how the assessment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors during surgery can be made using SWIR hyperspectral imaging.

In Part III of this book, we discuss biomedical applications of SWIR light in important diseases of the heart, brain, skin, and other organs. SWIR light can be utilized in the assessment of heart failure and to access difficult-to-reach areas of the brain. Investigators use SWIR imaging techniques to evaluate neurocognitive disorders and skin inflammation. SWIR light can also be employed using an otoscope to assess pediatric conditions, and with optical coherence tomography and other imaging modalities in dentistry.

Finally, Part IV provides a discussion of how artificial intelligence and machine learning can greatly enhance our ability to use SWIR windows to detect and study disease.

Laura A. Sordillo, M.S., M.Phil., Ph.D.
Peter P. Sordillo, M.D., Ph.D., M.S.
December 2021

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