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Proceedings Paper

Optical emission spectroscopy of various materials irradiated by soft x-ray free-electron laser
Author(s): J. Cihelka; L. Juha; J. Chalupský; F. B. Rosmej; O. Renner; K. Saksl; V. Hájková; L. Vyšin; E. Galtier; R. Schott; A. R. Khorsand; D. Riley; T. Dzelzainis; A. Nelson; R. W. Lee; P. Heimann; B. Nagler; S. Vinko; J. Wark; T. Whitcher; S. Toleikis; T. Tschentscher; R. Faustlin; H. Wabnitz; S. Bajt; H. Chapman; J. Krzywinski; R. Sobierajski; D. Klinger; M. Jurek; J. Pelka; S. Hau-Riege; R. A. London; J. Kuba; N. Stojanovic; K. Sokolowski-Tinten; A. J. Gleeson; M. Störmer; J. Andreasson; J. Hajdu; N. Timneanu
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Paper Abstract

The beam of Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) tuned at either 32.5 nm or 13.7 nm was focused by a grazing incidence elliptical mirror and an off-axis parabolic mirror coated by Si/Mo multilayer on 20-micron and 1-micron spot, respectively. The grazing incidence and normal incidence focusing of ~10-fs pulses carrying an energy of 10 μJ lead at the surface of various solids (Si, Al, Ti, Ta, Si3N4, BN, a-C/Si, Ni/Si, Cr/Si, Rh/Si, Ce:YAG, poly(methyl methacrylate) - PMMA, stainless steel, etc.) to an irradiance of 1013 W/cm2 and 1016 W/cm2, respectively. The optical emission of the plasmas produced under these conditions was registered by grating (1200 lines/mm and/or 150 lines/mm) spectrometer MS257 (Oriel) equipped with iCCD head (iStar 720, Andor). Surprisingly, only lines belonging to the neutral atoms were observed at intensities around 1013 W/cm2. No lines of atomic ions have been identified in UV-vis spectra emitted from the plasmas formed by the FLASH beam focused in a 20-micron spot. At intensities around 1016 W/cm2, the OE spectra are again dominated by the atomic lines. However, a weak emission of Al+ and Al2+ was registered as well. The abundance ratio of Al/Al+ should be at least 100. The plasma is really cold, an excitation temperature equivalent to 0.8 eV was found by a computer simulation of the aluminum plasma OE spectrum. A broadband emission was also registered, both from the plasmas (typical is for carbon; there were no spectral lines) and the scintillators (on Ce:YAG crystal, both the luminescence bands and the line plasma emission were recorded by the spectrometer).

Paper Details

Date Published: 18 May 2009
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 7361, Damage to VUV, EUV, and X-Ray Optics II, 73610P (18 May 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.822766
Show Author Affiliations
J. Cihelka, Institute of Physics (Czech Republic)
J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry (Czech Republic)
L. Juha, Institute of Physics (Czech Republic)
J. Chalupský, Institute of Physics (Czech Republic)
Czech Technical Univ. (Czech Republic)
F. B. Rosmej, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie (France)
O. Renner, Institute of Physics (Czech Republic)
K. Saksl, Institute of Materials Research (Slovakia)
V. Hájková, Institute of Physics (Czech Republic)
L. Vyšin, Institute of Physics (Czech Republic)
E. Galtier, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie (Slovakia)
R. Schott, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie (Slovakia)
A. R. Khorsand, FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen (Netherlands)
D. Riley, Queen's Univ. Belfast (United Kingdom)
T. Dzelzainis, Queen's Univ. Belfast (United Kingdom)
A. Nelson, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
R. W. Lee, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
P. Heimann, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)
B. Nagler, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
S. Vinko, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
J. Wark, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
T. Whitcher, Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)
S. Toleikis, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany)
T. Tschentscher, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany)
R. Faustlin, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany)
H. Wabnitz, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany)
S. Bajt, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany)
H. Chapman, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany)
J. Krzywinski, SLAC National Accelerator Lab. (United States)
R. Sobierajski, Institute of Physics (Poland)
D. Klinger, Institute of Physics (Poland)
M. Jurek, Institute of Physics (Poland)
J. Pelka, Institute of Physics (Poland)
S. Hau-Riege, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
R. A. London, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (United States)
J. Kuba, Czech Technical Univ. in Prague (Czech Republic)
N. Stojanovic, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany)
K. Sokolowski-Tinten, Univ. Duisburg-Essen (Germany)
A. J. Gleeson, Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom)
M. Störmer, GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht (Germany)
J. Andreasson, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)
J. Hajdu, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)
N. Timneanu, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7361:
Damage to VUV, EUV, and X-Ray Optics II
Libor Juha; Saša Bajt; Ryszard Sobierajski, Editor(s)

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