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Proceedings Paper

Fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy of basal cell carcinomas ex vivo: demonstration of rapid surgical pathology with high sensitivity and specificity
Author(s): Daniel S. Gareau; Julie K. Karen; Stephen W. Dusza; Marie Tudisco; Kishwer S. Nehal; Milind Rajadhyaksha
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Paper Abstract

Mohs surgery, for the precise removal of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), consists of a series of excisions guided by the surgeon's examination of the frozen histology of the previous excision. The histology reveals atypical nuclear morphology, identifying cancer. The preparation of frozen histology is accurate but labor-intensive and slow. Nuclear pathology can be achieved by staining with acridine orange (1 mM, 20 s) BCCs in Mohs surgical skin excisions within 5-9 minutes, compared to 20-45 for frozen histology. For clinical utility, images must have high contrast and high resolution. We report tumor contrast of 10-100 fold over the background dermis and submicron (diffraction limited) resolution over a cm field of view. BCCs were detected with an overall sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 89.2%, positive predictive value of 93.0% and negative predictive value of 94.7%. The technique was therefore accurate for normal tissue as well as tumor. We conclude that fluorescence confocal mosaicing serves as a sensitive and rapid pathological tool. Beyond Mohs surgery, this technology may be extended to suit other pathological needs with the development of new contrast agents. The technique reported here accurately detects all subtypes of BCC in skin excisions, including the large nodular, small micronodular, and tiny sclerodermaform tumors. However, this technique may be applicable to imaging tissue that is larger, more irregular and of various mechanical compliances with further engineering of the tissue mounting and staging mechanisms.

Paper Details

Date Published: 24 February 2009
PDF: 6 pages
Proc. SPIE 7169, Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems VII, 71690Y (24 February 2009); doi: 10.1117/12.809445
Show Author Affiliations
Daniel S. Gareau, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr. (United States)
Julie K. Karen, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr. (United States)
Stephen W. Dusza, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr. (United States)
Marie Tudisco, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr. (United States)
Kishwer S. Nehal, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr. (United States)
Milind Rajadhyaksha, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7169:
Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems VII
Anita Mahadevan-Jansen; Tuan Vo-Dinh; Warren S. Grundfest M.D., Editor(s)

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