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Proceedings Paper

Cellulose nanocrystals the next big nano-thing?
Author(s): Michael T. Postek; Andras Vladar; John Dagata; Natalia Farkas; Bin Ming; Ronald Sabo; Theodore H. Wegner; James Beecher
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Paper Abstract

Biomass surrounds us from the smallest alga to the largest redwood tree. Even the largest trees owe their strength to a newly-appreciated class of nanomaterials known as cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). Cellulose, the world's most abundant natural, renewable, biodegradable polymer, occurs as whisker like microfibrils that are biosynthesized and deposited in plant material in a continuous fashion. Therefore, the basic raw materials for a future of new nanomaterials breakthroughs already abound in the environment and are available to be utilized in an array of future materials once the manufacturing processes and nanometrology are fully developed. This presentation will discuss some of the instrumentation, metrology and standards issues associated with nanomanufacturing of cellulose nanocrystals. The use of lignocellulosic fibers derived from sustainable, annually renewable resources as a reinforcing phase in polymeric matrix composites provides positive environmental benefits with respect to ultimate disposability and raw material use. Today we lack the essential metrology infrastructure that would enable the manufacture of nanotechnology-based products based on CNCs (or other new nanomaterial) to significantly impact the U.S. economy. The basic processes common to manufacturing - qualification of raw materials, continuous synthesis methods, process monitoring and control, in-line and off-line characterization of product for quality control purposes, validation by standard reference materials - are not generally in place for nanotechnology based products, and thus are barriers to innovation. One advantage presented by the study of CNCs is that, unlike other nanomaterials, at least, cellulose nanocrystal manufacturing is already a sustainable and viable bulk process. Literally tons of cellulose nanocrystals can be generated each day, producing other viable byproducts such as glucose (for alternative fuel) and gypsum (for buildings).There is an immediate need for the development of the basic manufacturing metrology infrastructure to implement fundamental best practices for manufacturing and in the determination of properties for these for nanoscale materials and the resultant products.

Paper Details

Date Published: 9 September 2008
PDF: 11 pages
Proc. SPIE 7042, Instrumentation, Metrology, and Standards for Nanomanufacturing II, 70420D (9 September 2008); doi: 10.1117/12.797575
Show Author Affiliations
Michael T. Postek, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Andras Vladar, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
John Dagata, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Natalia Farkas, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Bin Ming, National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States)
Ronald Sabo, USDA Forest Service (United States)
Theodore H. Wegner, USDA Forest Service (United States)
James Beecher, USDA Forest Service (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 7042:
Instrumentation, Metrology, and Standards for Nanomanufacturing II
Michael T. Postek; John A. Allgair, Editor(s)

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