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Proceedings Paper

Immersion specific defect mechanisms: findings and recommendations for their control
Author(s): Michael Kocsis; Dieter Van Den Heuvel; Roel Gronheid; Mireille Maenhoudt; Dizana Vangoidsenhoven; Greg Wells; Nickolay Stepanenko; Michael Benndorf; Hyun Woo Kim; Shinji Kishimura; Monique Ercken; Frieda Van Roey; S. O'Brien; Wim Fyen; Philippe Foubert; Richard Moerman; Bob Streefkerk
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Paper Abstract

Defectivity has been one of the largest unknowns in immersion lithography. It is critical to understand if there are any immersion specific defect modes, and if so, what their underlying mechanisms are. Through this understanding, any identified defect modes can be reduced or eliminated to help advance immersion lithography to high yield manufacturing. Since February 2005, an ASML XT:1250Di immersion scanner has been operational at IMEC. A joint program was established to understand immersion defectivity by bringing together expertise from IMEC, ASML, resist vendors, IC manufactures, TEL, and KLA-Tencor. This paper will cover the results from these efforts. The new immersion specific defect modes that will be discussed are air bubbles in the immersion fluid, water marks, wafer edge film peeling, and particle transport. As part of the effort to understand the parameters that drive these defects, IMEC has also developed novel techniques for characterizing resist leaching and water uptake. The findings of our investigations into each immersion specific defect mechanism and their influencing factors will be given in this paper, and an attempt will be made to provide recommendations for a process space to operate in to limit these defects.

Paper Details

Date Published: 20 March 2006
PDF: 12 pages
Proc. SPIE 6154, Optical Microlithography XIX, 615409 (20 March 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.660432
Show Author Affiliations
Michael Kocsis, IMEC (Belgium)
Intel Corp. (United States)
Dieter Van Den Heuvel, IMEC (Belgium)
Roel Gronheid, IMEC (Belgium)
Mireille Maenhoudt, IMEC (Belgium)
Dizana Vangoidsenhoven, IMEC (Belgium)
Greg Wells, IMEC (Belgium)
Texas Instruments Inc. (United States)
Nickolay Stepanenko, IMEC (Belgium)
Infineon Technologies SC300 GmbH & Co. OHG (Germany)
Michael Benndorf, Philips Research Europe (Belgium)
Hyun Woo Kim, IMEC (Belgium)
Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. (South Korea)
Shinji Kishimura, IMEC (Belgium)
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd. (Japan)
Monique Ercken, IMEC (Belgium)
Frieda Van Roey, IMEC (Belgium)
S. O'Brien, IMEC (Belgium)
Texas Instruments Inc. (United States)
Wim Fyen, IMEC (Belgium)
Philippe Foubert, IMEC (Belgium)
Richard Moerman, ASML (Netherlands)
Bob Streefkerk, ASML (Netherlands)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 6154:
Optical Microlithography XIX
Donis G. Flagello, Editor(s)

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