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Proceedings Paper

Design and characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT scanner for detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage
Author(s): J. Xu; A. Sisniega; W. Zbijewski; H. Dang; J. W. Stayman; X. Wang; D. H. Foos; N. Aygun; V. E. Koliatsos; J. H. Siewerdsen
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Paper Abstract

Purpose: Prompt and reliable detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has substantial clinical impact in diagnosis and treatment of stroke and traumatic brain injury. This paper describes the design, development, and preliminary performance characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) head scanner prototype for imaging of acute ICH. Methods: A task-based image quality model was used to analyze the detectability index as a function of system configuration, and hardware design was guided by the results of this model-based optimization. A robust artifact correction pipeline was developed using GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo (MC) scatter simulation, beam hardening corrections, detector veiling glare, and lag deconvolution. An iterative penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) reconstruction framework with weights adjusted for artifact-corrected projections was developed. Various bowtie filters were investigated for potential dose and image quality benefits, with a MC-based tool providing estimates of spatial dose distribution. Results: The initial prototype will feature a source-detector distance of 1000 mm and source-axis distance of 550 mm, a 43x43 cm2 flat panel detector, and a 15° rotating anode x-ray source with 15 kW power and 0.6 focal spot size. Artifact correction reduced image nonuniformity by ~250 HU, and PWLS reconstruction with modified weights improved the contrast to noise ratio by 20%. Inclusion of a bowtie filter can potentially reduce dose by 50% and improve CNR by 25%. Conclusions: A dedicated CBCT system capable of imaging millimeter-scale acute ICH was designed. Preliminary findings support feasibility of point-of-care applications in TBI and stroke imaging, with clinical studies beginning on a prototype.

Paper Details

Date Published: 22 March 2016
PDF: 7 pages
Proc. SPIE 9783, Medical Imaging 2016: Physics of Medical Imaging, 97830T (22 March 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2216544
Show Author Affiliations
J. Xu, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
A. Sisniega, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
W. Zbijewski, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
H. Dang, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
J. W. Stayman, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
X. Wang, Carestream Health, Inc. (United States)
D. H. Foos, Carestream Health, Inc. (United States)
N. Aygun, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
V. E. Koliatsos, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)
J. H. Siewerdsen, Johns Hopkins Univ. (United States)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9783:
Medical Imaging 2016: Physics of Medical Imaging
Despina Kontos; Thomas G. Flohr, Editor(s)

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