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Proceedings Paper

Physical and optical dot gain: characterization and relation to dot shape and paper properties
Author(s): Mahziar Namedanian; Daniel Nyström; Paula Zitinski Elias; Sasan Gooran
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Paper Abstract

The tone value increase in halftone printing commonly referred to as dot gain actually encompasses two fundamentally different phenomena. Physical dot gain refers to the fact that the size of the printed halftone dots differs from their nominal size, and is related to the printing process. Optical dot gain originates from light scattering inside the substrate, causing light exchanges between different chromatic areas. Due to their different intrinsic nature, physical and optical dot gains need to be treated separately. In this study, we characterize and compare the dot gain properties for offset prints on coated and uncoated paper, using AM and first and second generation FM halftoning. Spectral measurements are used to compute the total dot gain. Microscopic images are used to separate the physical and optical dot gain, to study ink spreading and ink penetration, and to compute the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for the different substrates. The experimental results show that the physical dot gain depends on ink penetration and ink spreading properties. Microscopic images of the prints reveal that the ink penetrates into the pores and cavities of the uncoated paper, resulting in inhomogeneous dot shapes. For the coated paper, the ink spread on top of the surface, giving a more homogenous dot shape, but also covering a larger area, and hence larger physical dot gain. The experimental results further show that the total dot gain is larger for the uncoated paper, because of larger optical dot gain. The effect of optical dot gain depends on the lateral light scattering within the substrate, the size of the halftone dots, and on the halftone dot shape, especially the dot perimeter.

Paper Details

Date Published: 3 February 2014
PDF: 10 pages
Proc. SPIE 9015, Color Imaging XIX: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications, 901509 (3 February 2014); doi: 10.1117/12.2035713
Show Author Affiliations
Mahziar Namedanian, Linköping Univ. (Sweden)
Daniel Nyström, Linköping Univ. (Sweden)
Paula Zitinski Elias, Linköping Univ. (Sweden)
Sasan Gooran, Linköping Univ. (Sweden)

Published in SPIE Proceedings Vol. 9015:
Color Imaging XIX: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications
Reiner Eschbach; Gabriel G. Marcu; Alessandro Rizzi, Editor(s)

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