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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Diffractive Optics
Author(s): Yakov G. Soskind
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Book Description

Recent advancements in microfabrication technologies and the development of powerful simulation tools have led to a significant expansion of diffractive optics and diffractive optical components. Instrument developers can choose from a broad range of diffractive optics elements to complement refractive and reflective components in achieving a desired control of the optical field. This Field Guide provides the operational principles and established terminology of diffractive optics as well as a comprehensive overview of the main types of diffractive optics components. An emphasis is placed on the qualitative explanation of the diffraction phenomenon by the use of field distributions and graphs, providing the basis for understanding the fundamental relations and important trends.


Book Details

Date Published: 18 August 2011
Pages: 134
ISBN: 9780819486905
Volume: FG21

Table of Contents
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Glossary of Symbols and Acronyms

Diffraction Fundamentals
The Diffraction Phenomenon
Scalar Diffraction
Paraxial Approximation

Fresnel Diffraction
Fresnel Diffraction
Apertures with Integer Number of Fresnel Zones
Fresnel Zone Plates
Fresnel Zone Plate Properties
Fresnel Phase Plates
Comparing Fresnel Plates and Ideal Lenses
Efficiency of Fresnel Plates and Ideal Lenses
Talbot Effect
Fractional Talbot Distributions

Fraunhofer Diffraction
Fraunhofer Diffraction
Diffraction of Waves with Finite Sizes
Diffraction on Ring-Shaped Apertures
Energy Redistribution Within Diffraction Rings
Diffraction on Noncircular Apertures
Rectangular and Diamond-Shaped Apertures

Apodized Apertures
Apodized Apertures
Apodized Apertures with Central Obscuration
Field Obstruction by an Opaque Semiplane
Apodization with Serrated Edges
Serrated Apertures as Apodizers

Diffraction by Multiple Apertures
Diffraction by Multiple Apertures
Effects of Aperture Spacing
Aperture Fill Factor
Aperiodically Spaced Apertures

Resolution Limit in Optical Instruments
Resolution Limit in Optical Instruments
Superresolution Phenomenon
Superresolution with Two-Zone Phase Masks
Point Spread Function Engineering
Adjusting Diffraction-Ring Intensity
Amplitude and Phase Filter Comparison
Vortex Phase Masks
Combining Amplitude and Vortex Phase Masks

Diffractive Components
Diffraction Gratings
Volume Bragg Gratings
Polarization Dependency of Volume Bragg Gratings
One-Dimensional Surface-Relief Gratings
GRISM Elements
Two-Dimensional Diffractive Structures
Holographic Diffusers
Design of Fan-Out Elements
Diffractive Beam-Shaping Components
Digital Diffractive Optics
Three-Dimensional Diffractive Structures

Grating Properties
Grating Equation
Grating Properties
Free Spectral Range and Resolution
Grating Anomalies
Polarization Dependency of Grating Anomalies
Gratings as Angular Switches
Gratings as Optical Filters
Gratings as Polarizing Components

Blazing Condition
Blazing Condition
Blazed Angle Calculation
Optimum Blazed Profile Height

Scalar Diffraction Theory of a Grating
Scalar Diffraction Theory of a Grating
Diffraction Efficiency
Blaze Profile Approximation

Extended Scalar Diffraction Theory
Extended Scalar Diffraction Theory
Duty Cycle and Ghost Orders
Extended Scalar versus Rigorous Analysis

Gratings with Subwavelength Structures
Gratings with Subwavelength Structures
Blazed Binary Gratings
Relative Feature Size in the Resonant Domain
Effective Medium Theory
Scalar Diffraction Limitations and Rigorous Theory

Rigorous Analysis of Transmission Gratings
Analysis of Blazed Transmission Gratings
Polarization Dependency at Normal Incidence
Peak Efficiency of Blazed Profiles
Wavelength Dependency of Efficiency
Efficiency Changes with Incident Angle
Diffraction Efficiency for Small Feature Sizes

Polychromatic Diffraction Efficiency
Polychromatic Diffraction Efficiency
Monolithic Grating Doublet
Spaced Grating Doublet
Monolithic Grating Doublet with Two Profiles
Diffractive and Refractive Doublets: Comparison

Efficiency of Spaced Grating Doublets
Efficiency of Spaced Grating Doublets
Sensitivity to Fabrication Errors
Facet Width and Polarization Dependency
Sensitivity to Axial Component Spacing
Frequency Comb Formation

Diffractive Components with Axial Symmetry
Diffractive Components with Axial Symmetry
Diffractive Lens Surfaces
Diffractive Kinoforms
Binary Diffractive Lenses
Optical Power of a Diffractive Lens Surface
Diffractive Surfaces as Phase Elements
Stepped Diffractive Surfaces
Properties of Stepped Diffractive Surfaces
Multi-order Diffractive Lenses
Diffractive Lens Doublets

Diffractive Surfaces in Optical Systems
Diffractive Lens Surfaces in Optical Systems
Achromatic Hybrid Structures
Opto-thermal Properties of Optical Components
Athermalization with Diffractive Components
Athermalization with SDSs

Appendix: Diffractive Raytrace
Equation Summary
Bibliography
Index

Preface

Recent advancements in microfabrication technologies as well as the development of powerful simulation tools have led to a significant expansion of diffractive optics and the commercial availability of cost-effective diffractive optical components. Instrument developers can choose from a broad range of diffractive optical elements to complement refractive and reflective components in achieving a desired control of the optical field.

Material required for understanding the diffractive phenomenon is widely dispersed throughout numerous literature sources. This Field Guide offers scientists and engineers a comprehensive reference in the field of diffractive optics. College students and photonics enthusiasts will broaden their knowledge and understanding of diffractive optics phenomena.

The primary objectives of this Field Guide are to familiarize the reader with operational principles and established terminology in the field of diffractive optics, as well as to provide a comprehensive overview of the main types of diffractive optics components. An emphasis is placed on the qualitative explanation of the diffraction phenomena by the use of field distributions and graphs, providing the basis for understanding the fundamental relations and the important trends.

I would like to thank SPIE Press Manager Timothy Lamkins and Series Editor John Grievenkamp for the opportunity to write a field guide for one of the most fundamental physical optics phenomenon, as well as SPIE Press Sr. Editor Dara Burrows for her help.

My endless gratitude goes to my family: to my wife Eleanora, who had to bear additional duties during my work on this guide, as well as to my children, Rose and Michael, who learned the material while helping with proof reading the manuscript.

Yakov G. Soskind
August 2011


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