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Spie Press Book

CMOS/CCD Sensors and Camera Systems, Second Edition
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Book Description

The fully updated edition of this bestseller addresses CMOS/CCD differences, similarities, and applications, including architecture concepts and operation, such as full-frame, interline transfer, progressive scan, color filter arrays, rolling shutters, 3T, 4T, 5T, and 6T. The authors discuss novel designs, illustrate sampling theory and aliasing with numerous examples, and describe the advantages and limitations of small pixels.

This monograph provides the very latest information for specifying cameras using radiometric or photometric concepts to consider the entire system--from scene to observer. Numerous new references have also been added.


Book Details

Date Published: 29 April 2011
Pages: 408
ISBN: 9781510627116
Volume: PM208

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Solid-state detectors
1.2 Imaging system applications
      1.2.1 General imagery
      1.2.2 Industrial (machine vision)
      1.2.3 Scientific applications
      1.2.4 Military applications
1.3 Configurations
1.4 Image quality
1.5 Pixels, datels, disels, and resels
1.6 References

2 RADIOMETRY AND PHOTOMETRY
2.1 Radiative transfer
2.2 Planck's blackbody law
2.3 Photometry
      2.3.1 Units
      2.3.2 Typical illumination levels
2.4 Sources
      2.4.1 Calibration sources
      2.4.2 Real sources
2.5 Point sources and extended sources
2.6 Camera formula
2.7 Normalization
2.8 Normalization issues
2.9 References

3 CCD FUNDAMENTALS
3.1 Photodetection
      3.1.1 Photogate
      3.1.2 Photodiode
3.2 CCD array operation
3.3 CCD array architecture
      3.3.1 Linear arrays
      3.3.2 Full frame arrays
      3.3.3 Frame transfer
      3.3.4 Interline transfer
      3.3.5 Progressive scan
      3.3.6 Time delay and integration
      3.3.7 Super CCD
3.4 Charge conversion (output structure)
3.5 Correlated double sampling
3.6 Overflow drain
3.7 Low light level devices
      3.7.1 Electron bombarded CCD (EBCCD)
      3.7.2 Electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD
      3.7.3 Intensified CCDs
3.8 Charge injection device (CID)
3.9 Well capacity
3.10 References

4 CMOS FUNDAMENTALS
4.1 CCD and CMOS arrays: key differences
      4.1.1 CCD array characteristics
      4.1.2 CMOS array characteristics
4.2 CMOS arrays: predictions and reality
      4.2.1 Smaller pixel potential limitations
      4.2.2 Smaller pixel design evolution
4.3 Pixel electronics
      4.3.1 3T pixel family
      4.3.2 4T, 5T, and 6T pixel families
      4.3.3 Rolling shutter vs. snapshot mode
4.4 CMOS architectures
4.5 CMOS future
4.6 References

5 ARRAY PARAMETERS
5.1 Number of detectors
      5.1.1 Video formats
      5.1.2 Scientific arrays
      5.1.3 Digital still cameras
      5.1.4 Image stabilization
5.2 Optical format
5.3 Dark pixels
5.4 Microlenses
5.5 Quantum efficiency
      5.5.1 CCD, CMOS, and EMCCD
      5.5.2 ICCD and EBCCD
5.6 Creating color
      5.6.1 Color filter arrays
      5.6.2 Vertically stacked detectors
      5.6.3 3CCD
5.7 Defects
5.8 References

6 SENSITIVITY
6.1 Responsivity
      6.1.1 CCD, CMOS, and EMCCD
      6.1.2 Super CCD
      6.1.3 ICCD and EBCCD
6.2 Dark current
6.3 Maximum signal
6.4 Noise
      6.4.1 Shot noise
      6.4.2 Reset noise
      6.4.3 On-chip amplifier noise
      6.4.4 Off-chip amplifier noise
      6.4.5 Quantization noise
      6.4.6 Pattern noisep>
      6.4.7 Super CCD noise
      6.4.8 EMCCD noise
      6.4.9 ICCD noise
      6.4.10 "Camera noise"
6.5 Dynamic range
6.6 Photon transfer and mean-variance
6.7 Signal-to-noise ratio
      6.7.1 CCD, CMOS, and Super CCD SNR
      6.7.2 Incremental SNR
      6.7.3 EMCCD SNR
      6.7.4 ICCD SNR
6.8 Noise equivalent inputs
      6.8.1 NEI
      6.8.2 Noise equivalent reflectance
6.9 Lux transfer
6.10 Speed – ISO rating
6.11 References

7 CAMERA DESIGN
7.1 Camera operation
7.2 Optical design
7.3 Analog-to-digital converters
7.4 Image processing
      7.4.1 The knee
      7.4.2 Aperture correction
      7.4.3 Gamma correction
7.5 Video formats
      7.5.1 "Conventional" video timing
      7.5.2 Digital television
7.6 CRT overview
      7.6.1 Monochrome displays
      7.6.2 Color displays
7.7 Flat panel displays
7.8 Computer interface
7.9 References

8 LINEAR SYSTEM THEORY
8.1 Linear system theory
      8.1.1 Time varying signals
      8.1.2 Spatially varying signals
8.2 Electronic imaging system
8.3 MTF and PTF interpretation
8.4 Superposition applied to optical systems

9 SAMPLING
9.1 Sampling theorem
9.2 Aliasing
9.3 Image distortion
9.4 Array Nyquist frequency
9.5 CFA Nyquist frequency
      9.5.1 Bayer CFA
      9.5.2 WRGB CFA
      9.5.3 Super CCD FPA
      9.5.4 Foveon
      9.5.5 2PFC
9.6 Reconstruction
9.7 Multiple samplers
9.8 References

10 MTF
10.1 Frequency domains
10.2 Optics
10.3 Detectors
      10.3.1 Rectangular
      10.3.2 Circular
      10.3.3 L-shaped
      10.3.4 Notched rectangle
10.4 Diffusion
      10.4.1 Bulk diffusion
      10.4.2 Surface lateral diffusion
      10.4.3 Epitaxial layer diffusion
10.5 Optical crosstalk
10.6 "Color" MTF
      10.6.1 Optical low pass filter
      10.6.2 Bayer pattern
      10.6.3 Measured MTF
10.7 Sampling "MTF"
10.8 Charge transfer efficiency
10.9 TDI
10.10 Motion
      10.10.1 Linear motion
      10.10.2 Random motion (jitter)
10.11 Digital filters
10.12 Reconstruction
      10.12.1 Sample-and-hold
      10.12.2 Post-reconstruction filter
10.13 Boost
10.14 CRT display
      10.14.1 Spot size
      10.14.2 Addressability
      10.14.3 Character recognition
      10.14.4 CRT MTF
10.15 Flat panel displays
10.16 Printer MTF
10.17 The observer
10.18 Intensified CCD
10.19 References

11 IMAGE QUALITY
11.1 Resolution metrics
11.2 Optical resolution
11.3 Detector resolution
11.4 Electrical resolution metric
11.5 MTF-based resolution
      11.5.1 Limiting resolution
      11.5.2 Optics-detector subsystem
      11.5.3 Schade's equivalent resolution
11.6 Display resolution
      11.6.1 Disels
      11.6.2 TV resolution
      11.6.3 Flat panel displays
      11.6.4 Printers
11.7 Spurious response
11.8 Observer-based resolution
      11.8.1 MTFA
      11.8.2 Subjective quality factor
      11.8.3 Square-root integral
      11.8.4 Targeting task performance
11.9 Viewing distance
      11.9.1 Video
      11.9.2 Digital cameras
11.10 Image reconstruction
11.11 References

12 RANGE PERFORMANCE
12.1 Atmospheric transmittance
12.2 Target contrast
12.3 Contrast transmittance
12.4 Range predictions
12.5 References

Appendix
      f-number

Index

Preface to the Second Edition

We appreciate the numerous compliments that we received on our first edition. We could have reprinted that edition, but much has happened since 2007 and we felt it was important to include this new material.

Separating arrays by application or functionality would make writing this book easier. In support of this separation is that each array or camera manufacturer focuses on a particular market segment. The market could be divided into consumer, industrial, scientific, and military areas. It could be divided into low and high performance. Unfortunately, all these overlap, making division difficult. As a result, some information is spread over several chapters.

The largest market today is the cell phone (mobile phone), with camcorders and digital cameras close behind. The goal is to make these cameras small, lowpowered, and inexpensive. The high-volume manufacturers consider technological advances as company proprietary information. Hence, the published literature tends to cover only scientific array technology. Nevertheless, there is sufficient information in this book to make an intelligent choice when buying these products.

In the early 1990s, some thought that CMOS detectors would replace CCDs, This did not (nor will it) happen. Each has it advantages and disadvantages. CMOS manufacturing capability can produce smaller-sized detectors with 1 μm square detectors as a goal. These smaller detectors impact performance. The signal-to-noise ratio is relatively low and the dynamic range is small. While even smaller detectors may be possible, the optical blur diameter will ultimately limit spatial resolution.

Chapter 2 (Radiometry and photometry) has not changed. CCD fundamentals are presented in Chapter 3. The overflow drain functions are described in more detail. It can act as a variable shutter and extend dynamic range.

Chapter 4 is the CMOS equivalent of Chapter 3. It lists the differences and similarities between CCD and CMOS sensors. Emphasis is placed on the difficulty and limitations of the shrinking detector size. Pixel structures (3T, 4T, 5T, and 6T) and associated on-chip functionality are compared with a view towards manufacturability. The higher 'transistor' (4T, 5T, and 6T) designs are for scientific applications. High-volume manufacturers use the 3T design.

Array parameters (well capacity, dark pixels, microelenses, and color filter arrays) apply both to CCD and CMOS arrays (Chapter 5). Array sizes have grown over the years (e.g., HDTV and digital cameras). The optical format concept has been clarified. This chapter provides new color filter array (CFA) concepts and vertically stacked detectors. While Chapter 6 describes quantum efficiency, responsivity, and noise sources, the most important parameter is the signal-to-noise ratio. The section on dynamic range has been expanded.

Chapters 7 and 8 have not changed much. The order of Chapters 9 and 10 was reversed. Chapter 9 (Sampling) now includes the Nyquist frequency for CFAs. More pictures have been added to illustrate sampling artifacts. Sampling must be considered during the camera design phase. The mathematics associated with sampling theory are complex, but the human visual system is very tolerant. Aliasing, which is always present, is just ignored by many. As an example, we love our under-sampled TV.

It might initially seem odd that so many pages are devoted to video standards, CRT and flat-panel displays, and printed images. The display type drives array size and camera design. Nearly every camera provides a digital output. Since digital data cannot be seen, imaging systems rely on the display medium and human visual system to produce a perceived continuous image. The display medium creates an image by painting a series of light spots onto a screen or ink spots onto paper. Since each display medium has a different spot size and shape, the perceived image will be different on each display type. Viewing distance (Chapter 11) significantly affects perceived image quality. Printers, monitors, and televisions are designed for an anticipated viewing distance. Chapter 12 has not changed.

For the mechanics, there 36 additional pages of text, 24 more figures, and 80 more references. We clarified numerous sections, deleted old material, and added the latest technological advances. We fixed the typos but probably introduced new ones.

Doug Marks, Pinnacle Communication Services, provided numerous updates to the artwork. We appreciated Doug's "instant" response to our requests for drawing modifications.

Gerald C. Holst
Terrence S. Lomheim
February 2011


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