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Tutorials in Complex Photonic Media
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Book Description

The field of complex photonic media encompasses many leading-edge areas in physics, chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, and engineering. In Tutorials in Complex Photonic Media, leading experts have brought together 19 tutorials on breakthroughs in modern optics, such as negative refraction, chiral media, plasmonics, photonic crystals, and organic photonics.

This text will help students, engineers, and scientists entering the field to become familiar with the interrelated aspects of the subject. It also serves well as a supplemental text in introductory and advanced courses on optical materials, nanotechnology, physical optics, or photonic metamaterials.


Book Details

Date Published: 29 December 2009
Pages: 728
ISBN: 9780819477736
Volume: PM194

Table of Contents
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Foreword
Introduction

List of Contributors

1 Negative Refraction

Martin W. McCall and Graeme Dewar

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Background
1.3 Beyond natural media: waves that run backwards
1.4 Wires and rings
1.5 Experimental confirmation
1.6 The perfect lens
1.7 The formal criterion for achieving negative phase velocity propagation
1.8 Fermat's principle and negative space
1.9 Cloaking
1.10 Conclusions
1.11 Appendices
Appendix I: The ε(ω) of a square wire array
Appendix II: Physics of the wire array's plasma frequency and damping rate
References

2 Optical Hyperspace: Negative Refractive Index and Subwavelength Imaging

Leonid V. Alekseyev, Zubin Jacob, and Evgenii Narimanov

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Nonmagnetic Negative Refraction
2.3 Hyperbolic Dispersion: Materials
2.4 Applications
  2.4.1 Waveguides
  2.4.2 The hyperlens
    2.4.2.1 Theoretical description
    2.4.2.2 Imaging simulations
    2.4.2.3 Semiclassical treatment
2.5 Conclusion
References

3 Magneto-optics and the Kerr Effect with Ferromagnetic Materials

Allan D. Boardman and Neil King

3.1 Introduction to Magneto-optical Materials and Concepts
3.2 Reflection of Light from a Plane Ferromagnetic Surface
  3.2.1 Single-surface polar orientation
  3.2.2 Kerr rotation
3.3 Enhancing the Kerr Effect with Attenuated Total Reflection
3.4 Numerical Investigations of Attenuated Total Reflection
3.5 Conclusions
References

4 Symmetry Properties of Nonlinear Magneto-optical Effects

Yutaka Kawabe

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Nonlinear Optics in Magnetic Materials
4.3 Magnetic-field-induced SHG
4.4 Effects Due to an Optical Magnetic Field or Magnetic Dipole Moment Transition
4.5 Experiments
References

5 Optical Magnetism in Plasmonic Metamaterials

Gennady Shvets and Yaroslav A. Urzhumov

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Why Is Optical Magnetism Difficult to Achieve?
5.3 Effective Quasistatic Dielectric Permittivity of a Plasmonic Metamaterial
  5.3.1 The capacitor model
  5.3.2 Effective medium description through electrostatic homogenization
  5.3.3 Eigenvalue expansion approach
5.4 Summary
Appendix: Electromagnetic red shifts of plasmonic resonances
References

6 Chiral Photonic Media

Ian Hodgkinson and Levi Bourke

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Stratified Anisotropic Media
  6.2.1 Biaxial material
  6.2.2 Propagation and basis fields
  6.2.3 Field transfer matrices
  6.2.4 Reflectance and transmittance
6.3 Chiral Architectures and Characteristic Matrices
  6.3.1 Five chiral architectures
  6.3.2 Matrix for a continuous chiral film
  6.3.3 Matrix for a biaxial film
  6.3.4 Matrix for an isotropic film
  6.3.5 Matrix for a stack of films
  6.3.6 Matrices for discontinuous and structurally perturbed films
  6.3.7 Herpin effective birefringent media
6.4 Reflectance Spectra and Polarization Response Maps
  6.4.1 Film parameters
  6.4.2 Standard-chiral media
  6.4.3 Remittance at the Bragg wavelength
  6.4.4 Modulated-chiral media
  6.4.5 Chiral-isotropic media
  6.4.6 Chiral-birefringent media
  6.4.7 Chiral-chiral media
6.5 Summary
References

7 Optical Vortices

Kevin O'Holleran, Mark R. Dennis, and Miles J. Padgett

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Locating Vortex Lines
7.3 Making Beams Containing Optical Vortices
7.4 Topology of Vortex Lines
7.5 Computer Simulation of Vortex Structures
7.6 Vortex Structures in Random Fields
7.7 Experiments for Visualizing Vortex Structures
7.8 Conclusions
References

8 Photonic Crystals: From Fundamentals to Functional Photonic Opals

Durga P. Aryal, Kosmas L. Tsakmakidis, and Ortwin Hess

8.1 Preface
8.2 Principles of Photonic Crystals
  8.2.1 Electromagnetism of periodic dielectrics
  8.2.2 Maxwell's equations
  8.2.3 Bloch's theorem
  8.2.4 Photonic band structure
8.3 One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
  8.3.1 Bragg's law
  8.3.2 One-dimensional photonic band structure
8.4 Generalization to Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
  8.4.1 Two-dimensional photonic crystals
  8.4.2 Three-dimensional photonic crystals
8.5 Physics of Inverse-Opal Photonic Crystals
  8.5.1 Introduction
  8.5.2 Inverse opal with moderate-refractive-index contrast
  8.5.3 Toward a higher-refractive-index contrast
8.6 Tuning and Switching the Photonic Band Gap
  8.6.1 Introduction: double-inverse-opal photonic crystals
  8.6.2 Photonic band gap switching via symmetry breaking
  8.6.3 Tuning of the partial photonic band gap
  8.6.4 Switching of the complete photonic band gap
8.7 Conclusion
Appendix
References

9 Wave Interference and Modes in Random Media

Azriel Z. Genack and Sheng Zhang

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Wave Interference
  9.2.1 Weak localization
  9.2.2 Coherent backscattering
9.3 Modes
  9.3.1 Quasimodes
  9.3.2 Localized and extended modes
  9.3.3 Statistical characterization of localization
  9.3.4 Time domain
  9.3.5 Speckle
9.4 Conclusion
References

10 Chaotic Behavior of Random Lasers

Diederik S. Wiersma, Sushil Mujumdar, Stefano Cavalieri, Renato Torre, Gian-Luca Oppo, and Stefano Lepri

10.1 Introduction
  10.1.1 Multiple scattering and random lasing
  10.1.2 Mode coupling
10.2 Experiments on Emission Spectra
  10.2.1 Sample preparation and setup
  10.2.2 Emission spectra
10.3 Experiments on Speckle Patterns
10.4 Modeling
  10.4.1 Monte Carlo simulations
  10.4.2 Results and interpretation
10.5 Lévy Statistics in Random Laser Emission
10.6 Discussion
References

11 Lasing in Random Media

Hui Cao

11.1 Introduction
  11.1.1 "LASER" versus "LOSER"
  11.1.2 Random lasers
  11.1.3 Characteristic length scales for the random laser
  11.1.4 Light localization
11.2 Random Lasers with Incoherent Feedback
  11.2.1 Lasers with a scattering reflector
  11.2.2 The photonic bomb
  11.2.3 The powder laser
  11.2.4 Laser paint
  11.2.5 Further developments
11.3 Random Lasers with Coherent Feedback
  11.3.1 "Classical" versus "quantum" random lasers
  11.3.2 Classical random lasers with coherent feedback
  11.3.3 Quantum random lasers with coherent feedback
    11.3.3.1 Lasing oscillation in semiconductor nanostructures
    11.3.3.2 Random microlasers
    11.3.3.3 Collective modes of resonant scatterers
    11.3.3.4 Time-dependent theory of the random laser
    11.3.3.5 Lasing modes in diffusive samples
    11.3.3.6 Spatial confinement of lasing modes by absorption
  11.3.4 Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spikes versus lasing
      peaks
  11.3.5 Recent developments
11.4 Potential Applications of Random Lasers
References

12 Feedback in Random Lasers

Mikhail A. Noginov

12.1 Introduction
12.2 Concept of a Laser
12.3 Lasers with Nonresonant Feedback and Random Lasers
12.4 Photon Diffusion and Localization in Scattering Media and Their Applications to Random Lasers
  12.4.1 Diffusion
  12.4.2 Prediction of stimulated emission in a random laser operating in the diffusion regime
  12.4.3 Modeling of stimulated emission dynamics in neodymium random lasers
  12.4.4 Stimulated emission in a one-dimensional array of coupled lasing volumes
  12.4.5 Random laser feedback in a weakly scattering regime: space masers and stellar lasers
  12.4.6 Localization of light and random lasers
12.5 Neodymium Random Lasers with Nonresonant Feedback
  12.5.1 First experimental observation of random lasers
  12.5.2 Emission kinetics in neodymium random lasers
  12.5.3 Analysis of speckle pattern and coherence in neodymium random lasers
12.6 ZnO Random Lasers with Resonant Feedback
  12.6.1 Narrow modes in emission spectra
  12.6.2 Photon statistics in a ZnO random laser
  12.6.3 Modeling of a ZnO random laser
12.7 Stimulated Emission Feedback: From Nonresonant to Resonant and Back to Nonresonant
  12.7.1 Mode density and character of stimulated emission feedback
  12.7.2 Transition from the nonresonant to the resonant regime of operation
  12.7.3 Nonresonant feedback in the regime of ultrastrong scattering: electron-beam-pumped random lasers
12.8 Summary of Various Random Laser Operation Regimes
  12.8.1 Amplification in open paths: the regime of amplified stimulated emission without feedback
  12.8.2 Extremely weak feedback
  12.8.3 Medium-strength feedback: diffusion
  12.8.4 The regime of strong scattering
References

13 Optical Metamaterials with Zero Loss and Plasmonic Nanolasers

Andrey K. Sarychev

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Magnetic Plasmon Resonance
13.3 Electrodynamics of a Nanowire Resonator
13.4 Capacitance and Inductance of Two Parallel Wires
13.5 Lumped Model of a Resonator Filled with an Active Medium
13.6 Interaction of Nanontennas With an Active Host Medium
13.7 Plasmonic Nanolasers and Optical Magnetism
13.8 Conclusions
References

14 Resonance Energy Transfer: Theoretical Foundations and Developing Applications

David L. Andrews

14.1 Introduction
  14.1.2 The nature of condensed phase energy transfer
  14.1.3 The Förster equation
  14.1.4 Established areas of application
14.2 Electromagnetic Origins
  14.2.1 Coupling of transition dipoles
  14.2.2 Quantum electrodynamics
  14.2.3 Near- and far-field behaviour
  14.2.4 Refractive and dissipative effects
14.3 Features of the Pair Transfer Rate
  14.3.1 Distance dependence
  14.3.2 Orientation of the transition dipoles
  14.3.3 Spectral overlap
14.4 Energy Transfer in Heterogeneous Solids
  14.4.1 Doped solids
  14.4.2 Quantum dots
  14.4.3 Multichromophore complexes
14.5 Directed Energy Transfer
  14.5.1 Spectroscopic gradient
  14.5.2 Influence of a static electric field
  14.5.3 Optically controlled energy transfer
14.6 Developing Applications
14.7 Conclusion
References

15 Optics of Nanostructured Materials from First Principles

Vladimir I. Gavrilenko

15.1 Introduction
15.2 Optical Response from First Principles
15.3 Effect of the Local Field in Optics
  15.3.1 Local field effect in classical optics
  15.3.2 Optical local field effects in solids from first principles
15.4 Electrons in Quantum Confined Systems
  15.4.1 Electron energy structure in quantum confined systems
  15.4.2 Optical functions of nanocrystals
15.5 Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
  15.5.1 Interaction of a quantized optical field with a two-level atomic system
  15.5.2 Interaction of a quantized optical field with quantum dots
15.6 Optical Raman Spectroscopy of Nanostructures
  15.6.1 Effect of quantum confinement
  15.6.2 Surface-enhanced Raman scattering: electromagnetic mechanism
  15.6.3 Surface-enhanced Raman scattering: chemical mechanism
15.7 Concluding Remarks
Appendix A: Electron Energy Structure and Standard Density Functional Theory
Appendix B: Optical Functions within the Perturbation Theory
Appendix C: Evaluation of the Polarization Function Including the Local Field Effect
Appendix D: Optical Field Hamiltonian in Second Quantization Representation
References

16 Organic Photonic Materials

Larry R. Dalton, Philip H. Sullivan, Denise H. Bale, Scott R. Hammond, Benjamin C. Olbrict, Harrison Rommel, Bruce Eichinger, and Bruce H. Robinson

16.1 Preface
16.2 Introduction
16.3 Effects of Dielectric Permittivity and Dispersion
16.4 Complex Dendrimer Materials: Effects of Covalent Bonds
16.5 Binary Chromophore Organic Glasses
  16.5.1 Optimizing EO activity and optical transparency
  16.5.2 Laser-assisted poling (LAP)
  16.5.3 Conductivity issues
16.6 Thermal and Photochemical Stability: Lattice Hardening
16.7 Thermal and Photochemical Stability: Measurement
16.8 Devices and Applications
16.9 Summary and Conclusions
Appendix: Linear and Nonlinear Polarization
References

17 Charge Transport and Optical Effects in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

Harry H. L. Kwok, Tai-Ping Sun, and You-Lin Wu

17.1 Introduction
17.2 Charge Transport
  17.2.1 Energy bands
  17.2.2 Dispersive charge transport
  17.2.3 Hopping mobility
  17.2.4 Density of states
17.3 Impedance Spectroscopy: Bias and Temperature Dependence
17.4 Transient Spectroscopy
17.5 Thermoelectric Effect
17.6 Exciton Formation
17.7 Space-Charge Effect
17.8 Charge Transport in the Field-Effect Structure
References

18 Holography and Its Applications

H. John Caulfield and Chandra S. Vikram

18.1 Introduction
18.2 Basic Information on Holograms
  18.2.1 Hologram types
18.3 Recording Materials for Holographic Metamaterials
18.4 Computer-Generated Holograms
18.5 Simple Functionalities of Holographic Materials
18.6 Phase Conjugation and Holographic Optical Elements
18.7 Related Applications and Procedures
  18.7.1 Holographic photolithography
  18.7.2 Copying of holograms
  18.7.3 Holograms in nature and general products
References
In Memoriam: Chandra S. Vikram

19 Slow and Fast Light

Joseph E. Vornehm, Jr. and Robert W. Boyd

19.1 Introduction
  19.1.1 Phase velocity
  19.1.2 Group velocity
  19.1.3 Slow light, fast light, backward light, stopped light
19.2 Slow Light Based on Material Resonances
  19.2.1 Susceptibility and the Kramers-Kronig relations
  19.2.2 Resonance features in materials
  19.2.3 Spatial compression
  19.2.4 Two-level and three-level models
  19.2.5 Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)
  19.2.6 Coherent population oscillation (CPO)
  19.2.7 Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering
  19.2.8 Other resonance-based phenomena
19.3 Slow Light Based on Material Structure
  19.3.1 Waveguide dispersion
  19.3.2 Coupled-resonator structures
  19.3.3 Band-edge dispersion
19.4 Additional Considerations
  19.4.1 Distortion mitigation
  19.4.2 Figures of merit
  19.4.3 Theoretical limits of slow and fast light
  19.4.4 Causality and the many velocities of light
19.5 Potential Applications
  19.5.1 Optical delay lines
  19.5.2 Enhancement of optical nonlinearities
  19.5.3 Slow- and fast-light interferometry
References

Index


Foreword

Classical optics has been with us for some considerable time, yet the past decade has produced a cornucopia of new research, often revealing unsuspected phenomena hidden like nuggets of gold in the rich lode of optical materials. The key has often been complexity. The range of optical properties available in natural materials is limited, but by adding manmade structure to nature's offerings we can extend our reach, sometimes to achieve properties not seen before. I pick one example from the many included in this volume: negative refraction. Years ago it had been realised that a material with negative magnetic and electric responses would also have a negative refractive index. There, the idea languished for nearly half a century, lacking the naturally occurring materials to realise the effect. However by internally structuring a medium on a scale less than the relevant wavelength, it was proved possible to make a new form of material, a 'metamaterial,' which had the required negatively refracting properties. This concept alone has given rise to thousands of papers. There are other examples I could cite from the chapters in this book: exploitation of nearfield properties of nanoparticle arrays, photonic band gap waveguides, metallic nanostructures for sensing proteins, and so on. All of these examples have in common that man adds complexity to the offerings of nature.

In the face of these myriad advances, how are students or other new entrants to the field to educate themselves in the new technology? This book provides the answer, collecting together a definitive series of tutorials, each provided by an expert in the field. It is published at a time when there are many such new entrants and will be of great value.

J. B. Pendry
Imperial College London
February 2009


Preface

An increasingly large number of high- and low-tech technologies and devices benefit from employing optics and photonics phenomena, the latter originally being termed photon-based electronics. Progress in the research fields of optics and photonics, which have both experienced continuously strong growth over the last few decades, critically depends on the understanding and utilization of the physical, chemical and structural properties of optical materials. The optical materials used in traditional optics technology were macroscopically homogeneous in that their scale of inhomogeneity was much less than the wavelength. In more recent years, multiple breakthroughs have involved inhomogeneous, composite, and multiphase materials, whose structures are either photoinduced or determined by synthesis or fabrication. Examples include holography, optics of scattering media, and metamaterials. These breakthroughs make photonic materials inherently complex. The broad range of physical phenomena underlying complex photonic media makes it difficult for scientists, engineers, and students entering the field to navigate through the range of topics and to understand clearly how they relate to each other.

The purpose of this book is to provide the necessary coverage and inspire the reader's curiosity about the fascinating subject of complex photonic media. All of the tutorial chapters are designed to start with the basics and gradually move toward discussion of more advanced topics. We thus envisage that students and scholars with diverse backgrounds and levels of expertise will find this text interesting and useful. The book can be used as a supplemental text in courses on nanotechnology or optical materials, or a variety of other courses. It can also be used as the main text in a more focused course aimed at fundamental properties of scattering media and metamaterials. The anticipated level of preparation is equivalent to advanced senior undergraduate level, beginning graduate level, or higher. The book covers the topics in the following (rather loose) categorization:

Negative index materials (NIMs). One of the most exciting developments in complex photonic media in recent years is the realization that the basic parameters describing the electromagnetics of simple, isotropic media can take simultaneously negative values. This leads to all kinds of interesting phenomena, from a revised understanding of Snell's law, to lenses that defeat the conventional diffraction resolution limit. In "Negative Refraction" (Chapter 1), Martin W. McCall and Graeme Dewar describe the basic theory and impetus for negative refraction research. In "Optical Hyperspace: Negative Refractive Index and Subwavelength Imaging" (Chapter 2), Leonid V. Alekseyev, Zubin Jacob, and Evgenii Narimanov explore nonmagnetic routes that exploit materials with hyperbolic dispersion relations.

Magneto-optics. The term magneto-optics is used when the direction and polarization state of light are controlled by the application of external magnetic fields, offering opportunities for optical storage and isolation in optical systems. In "Magneto-optics and the Kerr Effect with Ferromagnetic Materials" (Chapter 3), Allan D. Boardman and Neil King introduce the magneto-optics derived from air-ferroelectric interfaces and glass/ferromagnetic film/air multilayer systems. "Nonlinear Magneto-Optics" (Chapter 4) by Yutaka Kawabe gives emphasis to the relationship between the tensors describing the nonlinearity and the underlying crystal point group symmetry. In "Optical Magnetism in Plasmonic Metamaterials" (Chapter 5), Gennady Shvets and Yaroslav A. Urzhumov describe some of the difficult challenges that lie ahead for achieving magnetic activity at optical frequencies.

Chiral media and vortices. Light, being composed of unit spin photons, is inherently chiral. However, chirality in optical systems can also be engaged at structural and macroscopic electromagnetic levels. Structural chirality is covered by Ian Hodgkinson and Levi Bourke in "Chiral Photonic Media" (Chapter 6), which describes the multilayer matrix formalism for novel elliptically polarized filters. When optical beams interfere, phase singularities occur; in "Optical Vortices" (Chapter 7) Kevin O'Holleran, Mark R. Dennis, and Miles J. Padgett describe some of the remarkable topological knots and 3D twists that result.

Scattering in periodic and random media. Scattering of light is fundamental to complex photonic media. Structures that are periodic are generally referred to as photonic crystals. In "Photonic Crystals: From Fundamentals to Functional Photonic Materials" (Chapter 8), Durga P. Aryal, Kosmas L. Tsakmakidis, and Ortwin Hess describe how photonic bandstructure emerges in both 1- and 2D structures, and how optical switching is achievable in inverse-opal structures. When the material inhomogeneity is random, different methods must be employed. In "Wave Interference and Modes in Random Media" (Chapter 9), Azriel Z. Genack and Sheng Zhang describe photon transport in a medium in terms of the interference of multiply scattered partial waves as well as by considering the different spatial, spectral, and temporal characters of the electromagnetic modes.

Photonic media with gain and lasing phenomena. Photonic media with gain and lasing phenomena represents the generic class of active photonic media. "Chaotic Behavior of Random Lasers" (Chapter 10) by Diederik Wiersma, Sushil Mujumdar, Stefano Cavalieri, Renato Torre, Gian-Luca Oppo, and Stefano Lepri examines the irreproducibility of experimental emission spectra and the change of statistics at near threshold. "Lasing in Random Media" (Chapter 11) by Hui Cao provides a detailed review of the concepts and advances in the field of random lasers. "Feedback in Random Lasers" (Chapter 12) by Mikhail A. Noginov emphasizes the significance of the strength of scattering and/or feedback in determining the properties of random lasers. In "Optical Metamaterials with Zero Loss and Plasmonic Nanolasers" (Chapter 13), Andrey Sarychev discusses how nano-horseshoe inclusion in an active host medium results in a plasmonic nanolaser.

Fundamentals. In "Resonance Energy Transfer: Theoretical Foundations and Developing Applications" (Chapter 14), David L. Andrews explores how the intricate interplay between quantum mechanical and electromagnetic medium properties leads to schemes for energy transfer and all-optical switching. In "Optics of Nanostructured Materials from First Principle Theories" (Chapter 15) Vladimir I. Gavrilenko provides a tutorial on the microscopic modelling of optical response functions using density functional theory and related approaches.

Organic photonic materials. Materials whose nonlinear coefficients often exceed their inorganic counterparts both in magnitude and response rate are examined in "Organic Photonic Materials" (Chapter 16) by Larry R. Dalton, Philip A. Sullivan, Denise H. Bale, Scott R. Hammond, Benjamin C. Olbricht, Harrison Rommel, Bruce Eichinger, and Bruce H. Robinson. These authors explore organic optical material design in terms of critical structure/function relationships. "Charge Transport and Optical Effects in Disordered Organic Semiconductors" (Chapter 17) by Harry H. L. Kwok, You-Lin Wu, and Tai-Ping Sun highlights how, as with regular semiconductors, charge transport can be modified by doping in organic materials, which possess enhanced carrier mobilities.

Holographic media. "Holography and Its Applications" (Chapter 18) by H. John Caulfield and Chandra S. Vikram discusses holograms used as parts of complex light-controlled or light-defined systems that manipulate the direction, spectrum, polarization, or speed of pulse propagation of light in a medium.

Slow and fast light. Slow and fast light is an intriguing topic demystified by Joseph E. Vornehm, Jr. and Robert W. Boyd in the final chapter "Slow and Fast Light" (Chapter 19). The authors show how manipulation of the material dispersion can lead to very slow, halted, or even backward propagating optical pulses.

The conception of Tutorials in Complex Photonic Media lies in an effort to consolidate the conference series, Complex Mediums: Light and Complexity, a subconference of the annual SPIE Optics and Photonics meeting held over the years 2003-20061. Incentive for this book was also largely compelled by Introduction to Complex Mediums for Optics and Electromagnetics, edited by Werner S. Weiglhofer and Akhlesh Lakhtakia, SPIE Press (2003), which is a consolidation of the Complex Mediums conferences from 1999 to 2002. We have taken special emphasis in this book to avoid the somewhat disjointed presentation that often accompanies books based on conferences. To this end, all of the chapters underwent round-robin reviews by several editors and coauthors who were frequently not directly involved in the research area. Much "back and forth" has hopefully ironed out the specialist's tendency to dive headlong into details that can only be appreciated once sufficient underpinning motivational material has been presented. Another issue is notation. Eventually, we decided that keeping a consistent notation throughout the book would be self-defeating, as anyone entering a new area must, to a certain extent, be flexible to individual authors' preferences. Nevertheless, we went to some lengths to ensure that the notation within each chapter is consistent.

The four editors who undertook this project have had a unique opportunity to work with some of the leading specialists in the field. Of course, there have been frustrations, but in the end, we hope that that this book presents a broad and balanced summary that will lead many others to take up the exciting challenges of working in complex photonic media. In the introduction to the predecessor volume noted above, Akhlesh Lakhtakia wrote 'I shall be delighted if a companion volume were published after another two or three editions of this conference.' Well, here it is.

Mikhail A. Noginov
Graeme Dewar
Martin W. McCall
Nikolay I. Zheludev

September 2009

1 In 2003 the conference was titled Complex Mediums IV: Beyond Linear Isotropic Dielectrics; in 2006 it was titled Complex Photonic Media.


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