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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Illumination
Author(s): Angelo V. Arecchi; Tahar Messadi; R. John Koshel
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Book Description

The content in this Field Guide starts with traditional illumination in imaging systems, followed by the recent advances in computer-aided design of high-efficiency nonimaging illumination optics, along with the modern source models that support these techniques. Sections on the illumination of visual displays are included as well as some important topics on architectural illumination.

Book Details

Date Published: 31 August 2007
Pages: 152
ISBN: 9780819467683
Volume: FG11

Table of Contents
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Glossary ix
Basic Quantities in Illumination 1
Flux, Irradiance 1
Solid Angle 2
Intensity, Radiance, Projected Solid Angle 3
Solid Angle and Projected Solid Angle 4
Spectroradiometric and Radiometric Quantities 5
Photometric Quantities 6
Matrix of Basic Quantities 7
Photopic and Scotopic Vision 8
Luminous Efficacy 9
Typical Values of Illumination Quantities 10
Averaged LED Intensity 11
Color 12
Light Source Color 12
Chromaticity Diagram 13
Color Temperature and CCT 14
Dominant Wavelength and Purity 15
Surface Color 16
Color of Fluorescent Surfaces 17
Color Rendering and CRI 18
Calculating CRI; Problems with CRI 19
Sources for Illumination 20
Typical Source Parameters 20
Tungsten Lamps 21
Tungsten/Sunlight 22
Fluorescent Lamps 23
H.P Sodium / Metal Halide 24
Xenon/White LED 25
LEDs 26
Illumination Properties of Materials 27
Transmittance, Reflectance, Absorptance 27
Reflectance Factor and BRDF 28
Harvey / ABg Scatter Model 29
Directional Properties of Materials 30
Retroreflectors—Geometry 31
Retroreflectors—Radiometry 32
Illumination Transfer 33
Lambertian and Isotropic Models 33
Known Intensity 34
Known Flux, Known radiance 35
Average Projected Solid Angle, Form Factor 36
Configuration Factor 37
Useful Configuration Factor 38
Useful Form Factor 39
Irradiance from a Uniform Lambertian Disk 40
Cosine Fourth and Increase Factor 41
Known Irradiance 42
ω, Ω, NA, and f/# for a Circular Cone 43
Invariance of Radiance 44
Illumination in Imaging Systems 45
Image Radiance 45
Limitations on Equivalent Radiance 46
Image Irradiance 47
f/#, Working f/#, T/#, NA, Omega 48
Flux and Étendue 49
Illumination in Nonimaging Systems 50
Generalized Étendue 50
Concentration 51
Skew Invariant 52
Fibers, Lightpipes, and Lightguides
53 x32419
Fibers—Basic Description 53
NA and Étendue 54
Fiber Bundles 55
Tapered Fibers and Tapered Bundles 56
Classical Illumination Designs 57
Spherical Reflector 57
Abbe Illumination 58
Köhler Illumination 59
Ellipsoidal and Paraboloidal Mirrors 60
Spectral Control and Heat Management 61
Illumination in Visual Afocal Systems 62
Uniform Illumination 63
Searchlight 63
Source at a Distance 64
Mixing Rod 65
Bent Lightpipes 66
Integrating Sphere 67
Lenslet Arrays 68
Small Reflectors, Lenslet Arrays, and Facets 69
Uniform Illumination 63
Searchlight 63
Source at a Distance 64
Mixing Rod 65
Bent Lightpipes 66
Integrating Sphere 67
Lenslet Arrays 68
Small Reflectors, Lenslet Arrays, and Facets 69
Source Models 70
Source Modeling Overview 70
Source Modeling Methods 71
LED Modeling 72
Incandescent Lamp Modeling 73
Arc and Fluorescent Lamp Modeling 74
Nonimaging Compound Concentrators 75
Nonimaging Compound Concentrators 75
Concentrators as Luminaires 76
Compound Parabolic Concentrator 77
CEC and CHC 78
Tailored-Edge-Ray Design 79
Faceted Reflector Design 80
Advanced Nonimaging Optic Design 81
Displays 82
Displays—Overview 82
Backlit Display Components 83
Backlit Display: Source and Injector 84
Backlit Display: Lightguide, Features, Reflector 85
Backlit Display: Polarizers, LC, and BEF 86
Projection Displays 87
Characterizing Illumination Systems 88
Mapping Flat-Fielding Sources 88
Goniophotometers 89
Types A, B, C Goniometer Coordinate Systems 90
"Snapshot" Goniophotometers 91
Software Modeling 92
Software Modeling Discussion 92
Architectural Illumination 93
Role of Light in Architecture 93
Light and Visual Performance 94
Eye Adaptation and Visual Fields 94
Apparent Brightness 95
Lighting Design 96
Layering of Light 96
Luminaire for Open Plan Office 97
Photometric Report and VCP 97
Spacing Criteria and Coefficient of Utilization 98
Daylight Compensation 99
Daylight Factor 99
Daylight Strategies 100
Exterior Lighting 101
Nighttime Visibility Criteria 101
Recommended Illuminance for Façades 102
Façade Floodlighting for Uniform Illumination 103
Outdoor Areas Illumination 104
Special Considerations for Outdoor Fixtures 105
Parking 106
Outdoor Luminaire Transverse Distribution 106
Outdoor Luminaire Lateral Distribution 107
Roadway Lighting 108
Criteria for Roadway Lighting 108
Small Target Visibility 109
Recommended Roadway Luminaires 110
Recommended Lamps for Roadway Luminaires 111
Appendix 112
Equation Summary 112
CIE Illuminants A and D65 120
xbar , ybar, zbar, V(Lambda), and Vprime(Lambda) 123
Archaic and Arcane Units of Illumination 126
Bibliography 127
Index 134

Introduction

In writing this Field Guide to Illumination, the first task was to decide what topics to include. Illumination tends to mean different things to different people. Certainly any subject matter under the purview of the CIE, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (the International Commission on Illumination) or the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) must be considered. Some particular areas pertaining to imaging systems and nonimaging optics are potentially overlooked. Thus, we chose to address a number of topics that fall under the following three categories: imaging system illumination, nonimaging optics for illumination, and architectural illumination, which all call upon principles of radiometry and photometry. Although this is not a guide to radiometry, enough information on the subject is included to make this manual a self-contained document. Additionally, those optical properties of materials that are pertinent to illumination, such as surface color, scattering, and retroreflection are described.

The content in this Field Guide starts with traditional illumination in imaging systems, followed by the recent advances in computer-aided design of high efficiency nonimaging illumination optics, along with the modern source models that support these techniques. Sections on the illumination of visual displays are included. There was not enough room for a complete treatment of architectural illumination, but some important topics are included at the end of this Field Guide.

The notation and terminology are consistent throughout this Guide, but we do not lose sight of the fact that they may not be consistent in the field. Examples of alternate notation and terminology are presented.

Angelo Arecchi
Hebron, NH

R. John Koshel
Tucson, AZ

Tahar Messadi
Fayetteville, AR


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