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Spie Press Book

Basics of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
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Book Description

Code division multiple access (CDMA) has proven to be a viable enabling technique for the simultaneous transmission and reception of data over a shared channel. Although associated mostly with wireless cellular communication, CDMA is also being considered for optical channels. This text, aimed at the reader with a basic background in electrical or optical engineering, covers CDMA fundamentals: from the basics of the communication process and digital data transmission, to the concepts of code division multiplexing, direct sequence spreading, diversity techniques, the near-far effect, and the IS-95 CDMA standard form.

Book Details

Date Published: 22 August 2005
Pages: 120
ISBN: 9780819458698
Volume: TT67

Table of Contents
SHOW Table of Contents | HIDE Table of Contents
List of Abbreviations / xi
Preface / xiii
Chapter 1 The Communication Process / 1
1.1 Introduction / 1
1.2 Digital Communication / 3
1.3 Multiple-Access Communication / 4
Chapter 2 Digital Communication Fundamentals / 7
2.1 Introduction / 7
2.2 Transmission and Reception in Noise / 7
2.3 Effect of Finite Channel Bandwidth / 10
2.4 Modulation through Phase Shift Keying / 16
Chapter 3 Code Division Multiple Access / 19
3.1 Introduction / 19
3.2 An Illustrative Example / 19
3.3 Direct-Sequence Spreading / 24
Chapter 4 Spreading Sequences / 29
4.1 Introduction / 29
4.2 Finite Field Arithmetic / 29
4.2.1 Galois prime number fields / 30
4.2.2 Finite polynomial fields / 32
4.3 Pseudorandom Binary Sequences / 33
4.3.1 Shift register implementation / 35
4.3.2 Properties of maximal-length PRBSs / 36
4.4 Alternative PRBS Schemes / 37
4.5 Walsh-Hadamard Codes / 39
Chapter 5 Diversity Techniques / 43
5.1 Introduction / 43
5.2 Propagation Model / 43
5.3 BER and Fading / 44
5.4 BER and Multipath / 45
5.5 CDMA and Multipath / 48
5.6 Multiple Antenna Receivers and Diversity Combining / 52
5.6.1 Selection combiner / 53
5.6.2 Maximum ratio combining / 55
5.6.3 Equal gain combiner / 56
Chapter 6 Multiuser Detection / 59
6.1 Introduction / 59
6.2 System Model / 59
6.3 Single-User Detector / 61
6.4 Decorrelating Detector / 64
6.5 Minimum Mean Square Error Receiver / 66
6.6 Adaptive Implementation of MMSE Receiver / 67
6.7 Minimum Output Energy Receiver / 69
6.8 Adaptive Implementation of Decision Feedback MMSE Receiver / 70
Chapter 7 CDMA in Cellular Telephony / 73
7.1 Introduction / 73
7.2 Cellular Telephony Basics / 73
7.3 IS-95A CDMA / 75
7.3.1 Forward channels / 75
7.3.2 Reverse channels / 77
7.4 Power Control / 78
7.5 Handoff / 79
7.6 Conclusion / 80
Appendix A Matched Filter Receiver / 83
A.1 Binary Detection Problem / 83
A.2 Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality / 84
A.3 Matched Filter / 85
A.4 Simulation Example of Matched Filter Receiver / 89
Appendix B Random Signals and Noise / 91
B.1 Introduction / 91
B.2 Definition of Random Processes / 91
B.3 Mean and Autocorrelation Function of Random Processes / 91
B.3.1 Properties of the autocorrelation function rX(t) / 92
B.3.2 Examples of stationary random processes / 93
B.4 Power Spectrum of Stationary Random Processes / 94
B.4.1 White noise process / 95
B.5 Noise through Linear Filters / 96
References / 101
Index / 103


Code division multiple access (CDMA) has proven itself to be a viable technique for enabling the simultaneous transmission and reception of data over a shared channel. Although CDMA is associated mostly with wireless cellular communication, it is currently being viewed with interest for optical channels as well. Among its key advantages are graceful degradation with traffic, low probability of intercept, and resistance to narrowband interference. The writing of this book has been motivated by a desire to provide a succinct tutorial treatment of CDMA. The book is aimed at the reader who has an undergraduate degree in electrical or optical engineering. The general emphasis is on the explanation of concepts, and as such, the book is intended to provide a quick lesson in CDMA rather than serve as a textbook in the field. There are already several excellent books on the subject that provide the in-depth treatment one might expect of a textbook. For those interested in learning about CDMA but who prefer material other than textbooks, the only other option is to gather tidbits from various sites on the worldwide web. We hope this book will address the needs of such readers.

The book is organized as follows. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the basic communication process by identifying the key components of the process. An attempt is made to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the common multiple access schemes. Chapter 2 covers digital communication fundamentals. The essentials of digital communication such as data transmission and detection in noise, the relationship between bandwidth and data rate, pulse shaping, and channel capacity are explained. The concept of code division multiplexing is introduced in Chapter 3 through orthogonal waveforms, and the notion of direct sequence spreading is then explained. Chapter 4 explores the properties of various types of codes used in direct-sequence-spread CDMA. A brief tutorial of Galois field arithmetic is provided, followed by a treatment of pseudo random binary sequences. Diversity techniques used to combat the effects of multipath and fading are treated in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 introduces the near-far problem and recent attempts to mitigate near-far effect based on multiuser detection. The subject matter of Chapter 7 is cell phone systems based on the IS-95 CDMA standard. Two appendixes, one on matched filter reception and another on random signals, are provided for quick reference.

It is our pleasant task to thank those who have helped in making this book possible. We are thankful to the many undergraduate and graduate students with whom we have had interactions on the subject over the last several years. The reviews by Professor Edwin Chong of Colorado State University and Fred Kellerman of Harris RF Communications were enormously helpful.We thank our families for their support and sustenance throughout the project. Finally, we have discovered that there is such a thing called infinite patience and it can be found in Margaret Thayer of SPIE. Surprisingly for the writing of a short book such as this one, we encountered a lot of delays and she has endured them without complaints. We are very thankful to her and to SPIE for their support.

Raghuveer Rao
Sohail Dianat
June 2005

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