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Spie Press Book

Organic Electroluminescence
Editor(s): Zakya H. Kafafi
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Book Description

Because of their application in low voltage flat panel displays, thin film electroluminescent device research remains a very active field. This book covers the principles of organic electroluminescence as well as recent trends, current applications, and future potential. The topics include:

  • organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in terms of history, chemistry, and basic principles of electroluminescence preceding in-depth discussions of the parameters that control the quantum efficiency and control of light output
  • mechanisms for carrier/charge injection and transport in organic semiconductors
  • electron and hole recombination processes
  • the physical properties of OLEDs, the characterization of amorphous materials with high glass transition temperature, and the chemistry and significance of light-emitting polymers
  • state-of-the-art concepts and technologies such as phosphorescent and fluorescent materials, thin film transistors, and organic emissive displays, particularly pixel electronics
  • summary of future directions for organic light-emitting displays and solid state lighting
  • overview of photoexcited organic lasers using organic thin films and photonic crystals
  • Organic Electroluminescence is an excellent resource for students, novices, and experts interested in designing and studying these materials.

    Copublished by SPIE Press and CRC Press.

    Book Details

    Date Published: 25 May 2005
    Pages: 368
    ISBN: 9780819458599
    Volume: PM151

    Table of Contents
    SHOW Table of Contents | HIDE Table of Contents

    Zakya H. Kafafi (Naval Research Laboratory)

    Chapter 1: Electroluminescence in Small Molecules
    Tetsuo Tsutsui (Kyushu Univ.

    Chapter 2: Emission Mechanisms in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
    Jan Kalinowski (Gdansk Univ.)

    Chapter 3: Physical Properties of OLEDs in Space Charge Limited Conduction Regime
    Jun Shen (Arizona State Univ.)

    Chapter 4: Amorphous Molecular Materials for Carrier Injection and Transport
    Y. Shirota (Osaka Univ.)

    Chapter 5: Chemistry of Electroluminescent Conjugated Polymers
    Bin Liu & Guillermo C. Bazan (UCSB)

    Chapter 6: Organic Electrophosphorescence
    Marc A. Baldo (MIT), Stephen R. Forrest (Princeton), & Mark E. Thompson (USC)

    Chapter 7: Photoexcited Organic Lasers
    Ananth Dodabalapur (UT Austin)

    Chapter 8: Organic Electroluminescent Devices for Solid State Lighting
    Anil Duggal (GE Global Research)

    Chapter 9: Future Directions of Organic Electroluminescent Displays
    Takeo Wakimoto (Asahi Glass Co.)

    Chapter 10: Pixel Electronics and Thin Film Transistors for Organic Emissive Displays
    Miltiadis K. Hatalis (Lehigh Univ.)

    Chapter 11: Patterning of OLED Materials for Full-Color Displays
    Martin B. Wolk (3M Co.)



    The 21st century will see a revolution in the way information is displayed electronically. Organic electroluminescent displays are envisioned to play a big if not major role in the area of flat panel displays. It may eventually dominate the market in a few years from now. Organic electroluminescent displays can be small such as hand-held or head-mounted displays, or large such as flat panel screens that can be rolled up or hung flat on a wall. Very bright organic light-emitting diodes may find their way one day as solid state light sources and lasers. The control of spontaneous emission using novel nanostructures and photonic crystals is emerging as a new interesting approach for the realization of organic lasers. This book on Organic Electroluminescence is intended for diversified readers such as graduate and postgraduate students in science and engineering, new comers to the field and experts as well. It can be used as a textbook for a graduate course on Organic Electroluminscence or a a good reference for solide state chemists, physicists material scientists and engineers who are interested and/or active in the field.

    The book is organized in 11 chapters, which are written by experts in their respective fields of chemistry, physics, material science and electrical engineering. The first and second chapters provide a historical background and an overview of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on small molecules and polymers. Chapter 1 serves as a useful introduction to organic electroluminescence and brings the reader up-to-date with the states of the art performance of organice displays based on small molecules. Chapter 2 defines the basic principles governing electroluminescence, including the critical parameters that control the quantum efficiency and control the light output. In addition, the theory and mechanisms of carrier injection and transport in organic semiconductors followed by the electron and hole recombination process are discussed in some details. Chapter 3 addresses the physical properties of organic light-emitting diodes in the space-charge limited regime. Chapter 4 discusses the development and characterization of amorphous materials with high glass transition temperature, and the role they play in carrier transport and injection. Chapter 5 reviews the chemistry of various classes of light-emitting polymers and their uses in OLEDs.

    Chapter 6 gives an overview of OLEDs based on phosphorescent rather than fluorescent materials, and discusses several mechanisms giving rise to light-emission such as entergy transfer and directs carrier recombination. Chapter 7 focuses on different structures adopted for achieving lasing in organic solids, and gives an overview of photo-excited organic lasers using organic thin films and photonic crystals.

    Future directions for organic solid state lighting and ligh-emitting displays based on OLED technology are summarized in chapters 8 and 9, respectively. A review of the "state-of-the-art" thin film transistors compatible with organic ligh-emitting devices for large area displays is given in chapter 10. In additions, the important underlying technologies for the realization of full color, rigid or flexible organic emissive displays including pixel electronics are addressed in this chapter. Last but not least a review of the differenct patterning approaches that can be applied to organic electro-active materials for display applications is given in chapter 11.

    Zakya H. Kafafi
    Naval Research Laboratory
    Washington, D.C. 20375, USA

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