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Spie Press Book

Chemistry and Lithography, Second Edition, Vol. 2: Chemistry in Lithography
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Book Description

This book is the second in a series of three volumes that make up the second edition of Chemistry and Lithography (2010). This volume explores the chemical basis of lithography, with the goal of deconstructing lithography into its essential chemical principles and to situate its various aspects in specific fields of chemistry. It is organized in five parts, comprising: lithographic process chemistry, lithographic materials chemistry, lithographic photo- and radiation chemistry, chemistry of lithographic imaging mechanisms, and lithographic process-induced chemistry.

With the successful implementation of EUV lithography in manufacturing at the 10-nm and 7-nm technology nodes, patterning challenges have shifted from resolution to mostly noise and sensitivity. This is a regime where the resist suffers from increased stochastic variation and the attendant effects of shot noise—a consequence of the discrete nature of photons, which, at very low number per exposure pixel, show increased variability in the response of the resist relative to its mean. Noise in this instance is the natural variation in lithographic pattern placement, shape, and size. It causes line edge roughness, line width variation, and stochastic defects.

Ultimately, these patterning issues have their origin in the materials used in lithography. Chemistry underpins the essence, functions, and properties of these materials. We therefore examine in the second volume of the present edition the role of stochastics in EUV lithography in far greater detail than we did in the first edition. Equally significant, the book develops a chemistry and lithography interaction matrix, which is used as a device to explore how various aspects and practices of photolithography (or optical lithography), electron-beam lithography, ion-beam lithography, EUV lithography, imprint lithography, directed self-assembly lithography, and proximal probe lithography derive from established chemical principles and phenomena.

Book Details

Date Published: 23 August 2023
Pages: 830
ISBN: 9781510655577
Volume: PM353

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

General Preface to the Second Edition
Acronyms and Abbreviations


1 Overview of Chemistry in Lithography

2 The Semiconductor Lithographic Process Chemistry
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Wafer and Mask Priming Surface Chemistry
2.3 Resist Coating and Thin Film Instabilities
2.4 Resist Soft Bake Chemistry
2.5 Resist Exposure Chemistry
2.6 Resist Post-exposure Bake Chemistry
2.7 Resist Development Chemistry
2.8 Post-development Bake and Resist Stabilization Chemistry
2.9 Resist Etching Chemistry
2.10 Resist Stripping Chemistry


3 Chemistry of the Lithographic Exposure Tool and Optical Element Materials
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Chemistry of Lens Materials
3.3 Chemistry of Mirror Materials
3.4 Chemistry of Lithographic Masks and Reticle Materials
3.5 Lithographic Pellicles

4 Chemistry of Lithographic Patterning Materials
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Resists
4.3 Resist Developers and Rinses
4.4 Resist Strippers and Cleaners
4.5 Stone, Plate, and Offset Lithographic Inks


5 Photochemistry and Radiation Chemistry in Lithography
5.1 Introduction
5.2 General Considerations on Photochemistry, Photophysics, and Radiation Chemistry in Lithography
5.3 Radiation Chemistry versus Photochemistry in Lithography
5.4 Photochemistry of Optical Lithographic Exposure
5.5 Photochemistry of Photon Interactions with Optical Elements, Masks, and Pellicles
5.6 Photochemistry of Photon Interactions with the Exposure Medium
5.7 Photochemistry of the Photo-oxidative Degradation of Photoresist Polymers
5.8 Photochemistry of Mask and Exposure Tool Lens Contamination and Cleaning
5.9 Contamination Mitigation Strategies in EUV Lithography
5.10 Photochemistry and Radiation Chemistry of Defect Repair of Optical Lithographic Masks
5.11 Photochemistry and Radiation Chemistry of Resist Systems


6 Chemistry of Photochemical and Radiochemical Imaging Mechanisms of Negative-Tone Resists
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Resins
6.3 Types of Negative Resists
6.4 General Considerations on the Chemistry of Crosslinking
6.5 Negative Resists Based on the Polymerization of Monomers in the Presence of Polyfunctional Components
6.6 General Considerations on the Chemistry of Photoinitiated Radical Polymerization Employed in Negative Resist Systems
6.7 General Considerations on Photoinitiated Condensation Polymerization
6.8 General Considerations on the Photoinitiated Cationic Polymerization Employed in Negative Resist Systems
6.9 Vapor-Deposited, Dry-Developed Metal Salts, Organometallic, and Metalorganic Oxide Hard Mask Resists
6.10 Lithographic Applications of Photopolymerization Negative Resists

7 Chemistry of Photochemical and Radiochemical Imaging Mechanisms of Positive-Tone Resists
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Types of Positive Resists
7.3 Resist Materials for Multilayer Resist Systems

8 Chemistry of the Limiting Issues of Photochemical and Radiochemical Resists and Approaches to Their Solutions
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Chemical Aspects of Advanced Resist Processing Techniques
8.3 Resolution Limit Issues of Resists
8.4 Vapor Deposited, Dry Developed Metal Salts, Organometallic, and Metalorganic Oxide Hard Mask Resists
8.5 Resist Materials Outlook for the Advanced Technology Nodes
8.6 Resist Processing Outlook for the Advanced Technology Nodes

9 Chemistry of Self-Assembling Lithographic Imaging Mechanisms
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Block Copolymer Self-Assembly
9.3 Colloidal Particle Self-Assembly Lithography
9.4 Monomolecular-Layer Self-Assembly Lithography
9.5 Outlook for Directed Self-Assembly Lithography

10 Chemistry of Imprint Lithographic Imaging Mechanisms
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Imprint Techniques
10.3 Imprint Tools and Materials
10.4 Imprint Lithographic Imaging Mechanisms
10.5 Theoretical Models of the Imprinting Process


11 Lithographic Electrochemistry
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Corrosion/Oxidation of Chrome Structures in DUV Lithographic Masks
11.3 Mechanism of Electrochemical Imprint Lithography

12 Lithographic Colloidal Chemistry
12.1 Introduction
12.2 The Forces Involved in Lithographic Colloidal Stability


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