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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Colorimetry and Fundamental Color Modeling
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Book Description

This Field Guide provides a basic understanding of how we measure, identify, communicate, specify, and render color. It addresses color order systems, color spaces, color measurement, color difference, additive and subtractive color, and color modeling.

Book Details

Date Published: 4 August 2018
Pages: 126
ISBN: 9781510621237
Volume: FG42

Table of Contents
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Glossary of Symbols and Notation

Color Matching Experiments
Colorimetry and Color Modeling
Brightnesss versus Color
Luminous Efficiency, V(λ) and V'(λ)
Additive Color Mixing
Grassmann's Law
First Experiment with RGB
Second Experiment with RGB
Color Matching Functions
RGB Linear Transformations
Computational CMFs
1931 CIE Color Matching Functions
rgb to xyz Conversion
CIE Tristimulus Values for Sources
Sources and Illuminants
Illuminant Examples
CIE Tristimulus Values for Objects
1931 CIE Color Space
Creating a New Color Space
1931 CIE Chromaticity Diagram
The Planckian and Spectrum Locus
Isotemperature Lines
Chromaticities of Popular Illuminants
Dominant and Complementary Wavelengths
Excitation Purity
Maximum Visual Efficiency
MacAdam Limits versus White Point
1964 10-Deg Color Matching Functions
Color Terminology
Related and Unrelated Colors
CIE International Lighting Vocabulary
Metamerism and Color Constancy
Color Rendering Index
Display Color Gamuts
Estimating r, g, b for Display Primaries
Calculating r, g, b for Display Primaries
Calculating r, g, b Example
Relative Luminance Ratio
Calculating a Display's XYZ 3 x 3 Matrix
Changing a Display's White Point
Incorporating Display Flare
Standard RGB
Color Order Systems
Munsell Color Order System
Munsell Notation
Natural Color System
Natural Color System Notation
Uniform Color Spaces
1976 Uniform Chromaticity Scales
Opponency, Compression, Adaptation
Hunter Lab and ANLab
Issues with CIELAB
Color Difference Equations
MacAdam Ellipses
The Inconsistencies of Δ*ab
Basic Chromatic Adaptation
Von Kries Transformation and CIE CAT02
CAT02 Example
Color Equivalency Mapping
Material Adjustment Transform
Waypoint Transformation Matrices
Color Measurement
Calibration and Reflectance Factor
Spectrophotometer Components
Measurement Geometries
Measurement Configuration
Abridged Systematic Error Analysis
Color Modeling
Subtractive Color Mixing
Lambert-Beer Law
Transmittance versus Tλ,i
Translucent and Opaque Materials
The Kubelka-Munk Turbid Media Theory
Kubelka-Munk for Translucent Layers
Kubelka-Munk for Opaque Layers
Saunderson Correction
Determining k and s for Opaque Media
Common Pigments (k and s)
Printing Models
Printing Types
Halftoning Examples
AM Halftoning with Colors
Spatial Additivity
Yule-Nielsen Modified Murray-Davies
Neugebauer Primaries
Yule-Nielsen Spectral Neugebauer
Graphical Printing Models
Cellular Neugebauer Model
Color Management
Device Color
Color Management
Device Class
ICC Abstract Profile Structure
Photopic V(&lambda) and Scotopic V'(λ) Responses
1931 2-Deg Observer CMFs
Relative SPDs of Illuminants
1964 10-Deg Observer CMFs
Color Rendering Index Equations
Abridged Spectrophotometric Error Matrices

The content for this Field Guide to Colorimetry and Fundamental Color Modeling came from the last class that Professor David MacAdam taught on colorimetry at the University of Rochester's Institute of Optics (1988) and the many wonderful, more recent, graduate classes at Rochester Institute of Technology's program of Color Science at the Munsell Color Science Laboratory. The material is a conglomeration of several excellent courses: Color Measurement, Advanced Colorimetry, Color Modeling, Color Appearance, and the laboratories associated with each. It was impossible to cover all topics to their full extent.

I would like to give special acknowledgment to Dr. Jim Schwiegerling at the University of Arizona's College of Optical Sciences for referring me to the powers that be at SPIE (series editor Dr. John Greivencamp). Thanks for suggesting that I should be the one to write a Field Guide about color. It was truly a joy to be involved.

I am also grateful to have had Dr. Roy S. Berns as my Ph.D. advisor in color science. His past advice for writing succinctly was of great value for this endeavor. He is not only a great color scientist and advisor, but also a sincere confidant and friend.

This Field Guide is dedicated to my mom and dad, Bonnie and Joseph Traylor; my husband, Dr. Brian Kruschwitz; and my children, Adam and Helen. They cheer me up when I am blue, and always keep life colorful.

Jennifer D. T. Kruschwitz
June 2018

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