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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Crystal Growth
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Book Description

Crystal growth is the art and science of growing crystals to facilitate high-technology applications in lasers, semiconducting devices, computers, magnetic and optical devices, optical processors, and pharmaceuticals, among others. This Field Guide examines the basic phenomena and techniques of growing bulk single crystals from solution, melt, and vapors. Some techniques for growth in the microgravity environment of space are also addressed. Other topics include how to choose the right crystallization method (concentration gradient or thermal gradient) based on the physical and chemical properties of the system, and the best solvents, agents, and temperatures to produce high-quality crystals.

Book Details

Date Published: 4 August 2018
Pages: 120
ISBN: 9781510617124
Volume: FG38

Table of Contents
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Glossary of Symbols and Notation

Crystal Growth
Objectives of Crystal Growth
Crystallization Methods
Synthetic Crystals
Applications of Single Crystals
More Applications of Single Crystals

Structures and Systems
Crystal Structure and Unit Cell
Crystal Systems and Bravais Lattice
Direction Indices
Miller Indices
Imperfections in Crystals
Types of Imperfections
Point Defects
Linear Defects: Dislocations
External Surface and Planar Defects
Crystal Twins and Stacking Faults
Voids and Atomic Vibrations

Growth Phenomena
Crystal Growth Processes
How to Choose the Method (Liquid to Solid Phase)
Solvent Selection
Solubility and Supersaturation
Seed Crystal Preparation and Mounting
Solution Preparation and Starting a Growth Run

Crystallizer Design
Design Considerations
Example System
Alternative System Design

Solid Growth
Solid Crystal Growth Methods
Slow Cooling of Solution
Recipe for Triglycine Sulfate Crystals
Detailed TGS Crystal Growth Method
Temperature-Difference Method
Solvent-Evaporation Method
Gel/Chemical Method

Microgravity Growth
Growth of TGS Crystals in Space
Cooled Sting Technique

Liquid Growth
Liquid Crystal Growth Methods
Liquid-Solid Phase Transformation
Crystal-Pulling Techniques
Czochralski Technique
Crystal-Pulling Apparatus
Common Crucible Materials and Insulators
Heating Methods for Melt Growth
Temperature Measurement and Control
Automatic Diameter Control
Parameters, Advantages, and Disadvantages
MNA:MAP Crystal Growth
Recipe for Silicon Crystals
Recipe for Lithium Niobate Crystals
Reciple for Bismuth Silicon Oxide Crystals
Liquid-Encapsulated Czochralski Method
Bridgman-Stockbarger Technique
Novel Bridgman-Stockbarger Design
Recipe for Bulk Lead Iodide Crystals
Lead Iodide Setup
Recipe for Vanadium Pentoxide Crystals
Hydrothermal Crystal Growth
Ammonothermal Crystal Growth
Crystal Growth from Flux
Flux, Crucible, and Environment
Recipe for PMN-PT Crystals
Growth by Electrodeposition
Vertical Floating Zone Melting
Horizontal Zone Melting
Verneuill Flame Fusion
Considerations for the Verneuil Method
Arc Fusion Growth
Growth by Skull Melting

Vapor Phase Growth
The Vapor Phase
Tube-Based Systems
Recipe for Zinc Selenide Crystals
Recipe for Silicon Carbide Crystals

Crystal growth is the art and science of growing crystals that are pillars of modern technological developments. It acts as a bridge between science and technology. Crystals are used in lasers, semiconducting devices, computers, magnetic and optical devices, optical processing applications, pharmaceuticals, and a host of other devices. Crystal growth requires technical skills in chemistry, physics, and materials science. This Field Guide describes the basic phenomena and techniques for growing bulk single crystals of high-technology materials from solution, melt, and vapors. Some techniques for growing crystal in the microgravity environment of space are also discussed. The idea of electronic miniaturization was developed during the mid-1950s due to the understanding and growth of doped silicon crystals. In principle, atoms are stacked in three dimensions in saturated solutions, melt, and vapors. It requires knowledge of temperature control, motion control, heating-furnace design, raising and lowering mechanisms, and phase diagrams. We hope that the included examples inspire readers with ideas to grow new materials for new devices. Any crystal growth process is complex; it depends on many parameters that can interact. The complexity makes it difficult to reproduce a process that is known to work and makes the processing of new materials much more difficult than it appears superficially. Crystal growth is sometimes frustrating, but like other crafts, it can provide great satisfaction.

Ashok K. Batra
Mohan D. Aggarwal
May 2018

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