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Power Harvesting via Smart Materials
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Book Description

This monograph covers the fundamentals, fabrication, testing, and modeling of ambient energy harvesters based on three main streams of energy-harvesting mechanisms: piezoelectrics, ferroelectrics, and pyroelectrics. It addresses their commercial and biomedical applications, as well as the latest research results. Graduate students, scientists, engineers, researchers, and those new to the field will find this book a handy and crucial reference because it provides a comprehensive perspective on the basic concepts and recent developments in this rapidly expanding field.

Book Details

Date Published: 28 July 2017
Pages: 306
ISBN: 9781510608498
Volume: PM277

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

1 Ambient Energy Sources: Mechanical, Light, and Thermal
1.1 Toward a New World Based on Green Energy
1.2 Vibration-to-Electricity Conversion
     1.2.1 Electrostatic energy harvesting
     1.2.2 Electromagnetic energy harvesting
     1.2.3 Piezoelectric energy harvesting
     1.2.4 Magnetostrictive energy harvesting
     1.2.5 Photovoltaic energy harvesting
     1.2.6 Radio-frequency energy harvesting
1.3 Thermal-to-Electricity Conversion
     1.3.1 Seebeck-effect thermoelectric generator
     1.3.2 Peltier-effect thermoelectric cooling
     1.3.3 Thermoelectric materials
1.4 Commercial Energy-Harvesting Devices

2 Fundamentals of Ferroelectric Materials
2.1 Classification of Dielectric Materials
2.2 Important Dielectric Parameters
     2.2.1 Electric dipole moment
     2.2.2 Polar and nonpolar dielectric materials
     2.2.3 Electric polarization
     2.2.4 Electric displacement, dielectric constant, and electric susceptibility
     2.2.5 Spontaneous polarization
2.3 Electrostrictive Effect
2.4 Piezoelectric Phenomena
2.5 Pyroelectric Phenomenon
     2.5.1 Pyroelectric current generation
2.6 Ferroelectric Phenomena
     2.6.1 Ferroelectric domains
     2.6.2 Ferroelectric hysteresis
     2.6.3 Poling
     2.6.4 Paraelectric effect
2.7 Conclusion

3 Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting
3.1 Historical Introduction of Piezoelectricity
3.2 Mechanism for Piezoelectricity
3.3 Theory of Dielectricity
     3.3.1 Static fields
     3.3.2 Time-dependent fields
3.4 Fundamentals of Electric Energy Harvesting
3.5 Piezoelectric Coefficients
     3.5.1 Piezoelectric charge coefficient (dij)
     3.5.2 Piezoelectric voltage coefficient (gij)
     3.5.3 Dielectric constant (eij)
     3.5.4 Coupling coefficient (kij)
3.6 Electromechanical Properties of Piezoelectric Materials
     3.6.1 Piezoelectric constitutive equations
     3.6.2 Piezoelectric polymers
     3.6.3 Piezoelectric ceramic: properties of PZT
     3.6.4 Properties of single-crystal PMN-PT
3.7 Piezoelectric Effect for Energy Harvesting
     3.7.1 General theory of mechanical energy conversion
     3.7.2 Piezoelectric generators
3.8 Operating Principle of a Piezoelectric Generator System
     3.8.1 Mechanical energy source
     3.8.2 Mechanical transformers
     3.8.3 Piezoelectric materials
     3.8.4 Power-transfer electronics
     3.8.5 Intelligent energy and storage management
3.9 Cantilevered Energy Harvesters and Types of Cantilever Beam
     3.9.1 Unimorph cantilever
     3.9.2 Bimorph cantilever
     3.9.3 Multimorph cantilever
3.10 Modeling Cantilever Beams
3.11 Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Recent Survey
3.12 Conclusion

4 Parametric Identification and Measurement Techniques for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters
4.1 General Electrical Parameters
4.2 Determining Piezoelectric Sensor Coefficients
     4.2.1 Mechanical model and equivalent electrical circuit
     4.2.2 Linear piezoelectric model
4.3 Electromechanical Coupling Coefficients
4.4 Elastic Compliance
4.5 Piezoelectric Charge Constants
4.6 Piezoelectric Voltage Constants
4.7 Mechanical Quality Factor
4.8 Methods for Measuring the Physical Properties of Ferroelectric Materials
     4.8.1 Determining the dielectric properties of ferroelectrics
 Dielectric constants and dielectric spectrum measurements at a low frequency
 Polarization (hysteresis loop) measurements
     4.8.2 Determination of piezoelectric coefficients
     4.8.3 Pyroelectric coefficient measurements
 Pyroelectric current method
 Pyroelectric charge-integration method
4.9 Parametric Identification and Determination for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters
     4.9.1 Natural frequency identification
     4.9.2 Damping factor identification
     4.9.3 Quality-factor identification
     4.9.4 Efficiency of energy conversion
4.10 Conclusion

5 Theoretical Background of Mechanical Energy Conversion
5.1 Euler-Bernoulli Beam
5.2 Piezoelectric Cantilevered Beam Using the Euler-Bernoulli Theory
     5.2.1 Clamped-free piezoelectric cantilever beam
     5.2.2 Clamped-clamped piezoelectric cantilever beam
     5.2.3 Clamped-free piezoelectric cantilever beam with tip mass
5.3 Lumped Parameter Model
     5.3.1 Single degree of freedom
     5.3.2 Two degrees of freedom
     5.3.3 Three degrees of freedom
     5.3.4 Lumped parameter model for MEMS applications
     5.3.5 SDOF for a PMN-PT single crystal in d31
     5.3.6 Further piezoelectric applications of the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory
 Nonpiezoelectric layer longer than the piezoelectric layer
 Piezoelectric layer and nonpiezoelectric layer of equal length
 Nonpiezoelectric layer shorter than the piezoelectric layer
     5.3.7 Modeling the PZT sensor using the pin-force method, enhanced pin-force method, and Euler-Bernoulli theory
5.4 Further Applications of the 2DOF Model
5.5 Tapered Unimorph Beams
5.6 Trapezoidal Cantilever Beam
5.7 Multiple Piezoelectric Elements
     5.7.1 Mathematical evaluation of a multiple-cantilever structure
     5.7.2 Four cantilever-type legs and piezoelectric ceramics
5.8 Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with a Dynamic Magnifier

6 Techniques for Enhancing Piezoelectric Energy-Harvesting Efficiency
6.1 Techniques to Tune the Resonant Frequency
6.2 Mechanical Tuning Techniques
     6.2.1 Changing dimensions
     6.2.2 Shifting the center of gravity of the proof mass
     6.2.3 Varying the stiffness of the spring
     6.2.4 Applying strain to the structure
6.3 Electrical Tuning Techniques
6.4 Bandwidth Widening Strategies
6.5 Conclusion

7 Piezoelectric Power-Harvesting Devices
7.1 Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Jaw Movements
7.2 Piezoelectric Shoe-Mounted Harvesters
7.3 Piezo-Wind Generators
7.4 Rotary Knee-Joint Harvester
7.5 Piezoelectric Prosthetic-Leg Energy Harvesters
7.6 Piezoelectric Pacemaker
7.7 Piezoelectric Railways
7.8 Piezoelectric Roads and Highways
7.9 Flexible Wearable Harvester
7.10 Rotating Energy Harvesters
7.11 Water-Flow-Based Energy Harvester
7.12 Summary and Outlook

8 Ferroelectric Energy Harvesting
8.1 Energy Transfer in Pyroelectrics
     8.1.1 Ferroelectric effect
     8.1.2 Paraelectric effect
     8.1.3 Phase transitions
     8.1.4 Pyroelectric performance
8.2 Thermodynamic Cycles for Pyroelectric Energy Conversion
     8.2.1 Heat and work fundamentals
     8.2.2 Pyroelectric energy-harvesting efficiency
     8.2.3 Carnot cycle
     8.2.4 Ericsson cycle
     8.2.5 Lenoir cycle
     8.2.6 Pyroelectric energy conversion based on the Clingman cycle
     8.2.7 Pyroelectric energy conversion based on the Olsen cycle
8.3 Recent Progress in Pyroelectric Energy Conversion and Harvesting
     8.3.1 Pyroelectric energy harvesting based on the direct pyroelectric effect
     8.3.2 Pyroelectric energy-harvesting figures of merit
     8.3.3 Pyroelectric energy conversion based on thermodynamic cycles
8.4 Conclusion

9 Processing Important Piezoelectric Materials
9.1 Single Crystals
     9.1.1 Growth of crystals from solution
     9.1.2 Crystal growth from melt
     9.1.3 High-temperature-flux method
     9.1.4 Vertical-gradient-freeze method with no flux
9.2 Preparation of Ceramics
9.3 Thin-Film-Deposition Techniques
     9.3.1 Non-solution-deposition techniques
 Laser ablation
 Chemical vapor deposition
     9.3.2 Solution-deposition techniques
 Metal-organic deposition
9.4 Thick-Film Fabrication
     9.4.1 Thick-film-transfer technology (screen printing)
9.5 Fabrication of Polymer-Ceramic Composites

10 Future Directions and Outlook
10.1 The Future of Power Harvesting: Drivers and Challenges

Appendix: MATLAB Codes
A.1 Euler-Bernoulli Clamped-Free Beam Modeling
A.2 Euler-Bernoulli Clamped-Free Unimorph Beam Modeling for Performance Parameters
A.3 Clamped-Clamped Beam Modeling for Performance Parameters
A.4 Clamped-Clamped Piezoelectric Cantilever Beam Modeling
A.5 Modeling the Performance Parameters of a PMN-PT Single Crystal with a Tip Mass Cantilever Beam
A.6 Modeling 2DOF Piezoelectric Vibrational Energy-Harvesting Parameters
A.7 Modeling 3DOF Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting
A.8 Modeling a 2DOF Cantilevered Beam System with Two Piezo Elements
A.9 Modeling a Thick Film Bonded to the Clamped End of an Aluminum Cantilever Beam


This monograph on ambient energy harvesting consists of ten chapters, organized as follows:

  • Chapter 1 explains green energy technologies and their applications. The sources of ambient energies accessible with available commercial devices are discussed.
  • Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of dielectrics, the nature of a unique class of smart materials (i.e., ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, and pyroelectrics), and its classification on the basis of crystal classes. A list of important materials is given, as well as their applications. Piezoelectric/pyroelectric/ferroelectric phenomena are described in the context of their energy-harvesting applications.
  • Chapter 3 involves the mathematical modeling of constitutive equations, mechanisms of piezoelectric energy conversion, and the operating principle of a piezoelectric energy-harvesting system. It also focuses on the dielectric, piezoelectric, mechanical, and pyroelectric properties of candidate piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials: from single crystals (such as PMN-PT) to ceramic PZT and polymers (such as PVDF). Recent important literature on piezoelectric energy harvesting is also reviewed.
  • Chapter 4 discusses the parametric identification and measurement techniques for piezoelectric energy harvesters, including the efficiency and the physical properties of piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and pyroelectric materials.
  • Chapter 5 demonstrates the principles of a piezoelectric cantilever beam for vibrational energy harvesting. Various configurations of cantilever-based energy harvesters are described, as well as the respective modeling used to predict their performance. Various important cantilever structures with multiple piezoelectric elements are reviewed.
  • Chapter 6 describes various strategies and techniques that have been developed to enhance piezoelectric energy-harvesting efficiency, namely, the frequency tuning and bandwidth widening of harvesters.
  • Chapter 7 briefly describes some of the important devices for piezoelectric power harvesting that have potential applications in the real world.
  • Chapter 8 focuses on the fundamentals and principles of energy harvesting via the linear and nonlinear properties of pyroelectrics/ferroelectrics. An overview of various materials and techniques investigated for energy harvesting, including mathematical modeling, is also presented. A survey of recent work on ferroelectric/pyroelectric energy harvesting is reviewed and presented.
  • Chapter 9 describes the methodology of the growth and fabrication of important piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials in various forms, such as bulk single crystals, polycrystalline ceramics, thin films, thick films, and composites. Based on the applicability and requirements of the materials, techniques such as a low-temperature solution and melt crystal growth, sputtering, laser ablation, chemical-vapor-deposition techniques, solution-deposition techniques (such as sol-gel, metallo-organic, and spin-coating pyrolysis), and screen printing are illustrated with diagrams and processes via flowcharts.
  • Chapter 10 projects a future outlook for piezoelectric energy harvesting.
  • The Appendix lists the MATLAB code for a few examples in Chapter 5.

For all technical contacts, suggestions, corrections, or exchanges of information, the reader is advised to contact the authors via email: and

Ashok K. Batra
A. A. Alomari
May 2017

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