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Spie Press Book

Dynamic and Agile Focusing in Microscopy: A Review
Author(s): Sarah J. Lukes
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Book Description

This Spotlight introduces miniature varifocus elements and covers the optical equations needed to integrate them with microscopes. It reviews the current technological capabilities and limitations of different varifocus elements, such as deformable membrane mirrors, liquid crystal devices, liquid lenses, and vertical displacement microlenses. A discussion of varifocus elements demonstrated in widefield microscopes, confocal microscopes, two-photon microscopes, and optical coherence tomography is included. This book serves as a course module in electrical engineering and physics, while also benefiting biologists and chemists who desire deeper knowledge of this particular technology.

Book Details

Date Published: 5 August 2016
Pages: 35
ISBN: 9781510604438
Volume: SL20

Table of Contents
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1 Introduction
1.1 Motivation
1.2 Types of varifocus elements
     1.2.1 Liquid crystals
     1.2.2 Liquid-filled lenses
     1.2.3 Vertical displacement microlens
     1.2.4 Deformable membrane mirrors
     1.2.5 Other

2 Governing Equations
2.1 Individual varifocus elements
2.2 Integration into microscopes

3 State of the Art
3.1 Commercially available elements
3.2 Elements demonstrated in academia
     3.2.1 Liquid crystals
     3.2.2 Liquid lenses
     3.2.3 Vertical displacement microlenses
     3.2.4 Deformable mirrors
     3.2.5 Summary

4 Demonstrations in Microscopy
4.1 Widefield microscopy
4.2 Confocal microscopy
4.3 Two-photon microscopy
4.4 Optical coherence tomography
4.5 Microendoscopes
4.6 Summary

5 Discussion and Future Outlook

References

Preface

Scientists continue to discover new biological mechanisms in human and animal health with in vivo microscopy. To observe dynamic phenomena as they occur, intact and thick samples are often needed for observation. Within these living tissues, microscopists must be able to follow specific trajectories in a 3D volume, track/stabilize features of interest, and minimize agitation of the sample during imaging. Varifocus elements allow for fast electronic focusing without translation of the sample stage or objective lens, thereby enabling dynamic and agile imaging within thick samples. This Spotlight introduces miniature varifocus elements and presents the optical equations needed to integrate such elements with microscopes. It reviews the current technological capabilities and limitations of varifocus elements, such as liquid crystal devices, liquid lenses, vertical displacement microlenses, and deformable membrane mirrors. A discussion of varifocus elements demonstrated in widefield microscopes, confocal microscopes, two-photon microscopes, and optical coherence tomography is included.

Sarah Lukes
July 2016


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