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Spie Press Book

Raman Spectroscopy: Applications in Breast Cancer Management
Author(s): Tanmoy Bhattacharjee; C. Murali Krishna
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Book Description

Since the discovery of inelastic scattering in 1928, scientists have developed a technique to elucidate the chemical constituents of complex samples and reveal their molecular structures. The result - Raman spectroscopy - is a forerunner in biomedical applications. This Spotlight explores the technique by way of breast cancer management, including its underlying principles, pathology, etiology, screening techniques, diagnostic methods, and treatment options.

Book Details

Date Published: 23 September 2015
Pages: 65
Volume: SL07

Table of Contents
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1 Raman Spectroscopy
1.1 History
1.2 Basic principles
     1.2.1 Electromagnetic radiation
     1.2.2 Degrees of freedom
     1.2.3 Normal modes of vibration
     1.2.4 Theory of Raman scattering
 Classical theory
 Quantum theory
     1.2.5 Raman active vibrations
1.3 Instrumentation
     1.3.1 Evolution of Raman instruments
     1.3.2 Types of Raman instrumentation
     1.3.3 Components
 Excitation source
 Sample illumination and collection
     1.3.4 Variants of Raman spectroscopy
 Raman microscopy and imaging
 Resonance Raman spectroscopy
 Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
 Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy
 Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy
 Fiber-optic probe-based Raman spectroscopy
1.4 Data analysis
     1.4.1 Data preprocessing
     1.4.2 Multivariate analysis
 Unsupervised methods
 Supervised methods
1.5 Applications

2 Breast Cancer
2.1 Breast anatomy and physiology
2.2 Pathology
2.3 Etiology
2.4 Screening
2.5 Diagnosis
2.6 Treatment

3 Raman Applications in Breast Cancer Management
3.1 Breast anatomy and biochemical composition
3.2 Breast cancer risk assessment
     3.2.1 Animal models
     3.2.2 Humans
3.3 Breast cancer screening
     3.3.1 Cell lines
     3.3.2 Animal models
     3.3.3 Humans
3.4 Breast cancer diagnosis
     3.4.1 Animal models
     3.4.2 Humans
3.5 Breast cancer treatment
     3.5.1 Cell lines
     3.5.2 Animal models
     3.5.3 Human tissues
3.6 Breast cancer metastasis
     3.6.1 Cell lines
     3.6.2 Animal models
     3.6.3 Humans

4 Conclusion



The discovery of inelastic scattering by Sir C. V. Raman in 1928 established a technique for elucidating the chemical constituents of complex samples as well as revealing their molecular structures. Combined with advantages such as low interference in signals from water and an abundance of Raman active moieties, the technique is ideally suited for delineating complex biochemical changes characteristic of disease progression. Technological developments and the discovery of Raman-based effects, such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, spatially offset Raman spectroscopy, and surface-enhanced spatially offset Raman spectroscopy, have further boosted its capabilities and made this technique a forerunner in the field of biomedical applications. This Spotlight describes Raman spectroscopy, the principles underlying this technique, theories proposed to explain this phenomenon, and instrumentation, variants, and general applications in Chapter 1. To shed light on existing and potential biomedical applications of Raman spectroscopy, the book discusses a specific application: breast cancer management. Chapter 2 deals with different aspects of this application, such as normal breast anatomy and physiology, breast cancer pathology, etiology, screening techniques, diagnostic methods, and treatment options, and Chapter 3 describes relevant research articles. We thank professor V. B. Kartha (advisor at the Manipal University, India, and ex-HOD at Spectroscopy Division, BARC, Mumbai) for kindly going through this paper and giving invaluable suggestions. We acknowledge Piyush Kumar for editorial makeover, and our colleagues and co-workers in Manipal University, Manipal, and Tata Memorial Centre, Navi Mumbai, for their support. We are also grateful to the SPIE Spotlight series for giving us the opportunity to write this book.

Tanmoy Bhattacharjee
Chilakapati Murali Krishna
August 2015

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