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Spie Press Book

Applications of Dispersive Optical Spectroscopy Systems
Author(s): Wilfried Neumann
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Book Description

Bridging the gap between a theoretical background in applied spectroscopy systems and practical recommendations, Applications of Dispersive Optical Spectroscopy Systems addresses the requirements, recommended configurations, and the justification and verification of systems for various applications. Topics include the selection and combination of components to fulfill requirements, as well as methods to justify the functionality. This book is suitable for students, engineers, and scientists looking for a concise text that provides background knowledge, perspective, and technical details for system designers and an easy-to-read compendium for specialists.

Book Details

Date Published: 30 March 2015
Pages: 224
ISBN: 9781628413724
Volume: PM253
Errata

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

Preface

1 Transmission, Absorption, and Reflection Measurements
1.0 Introduction
     1.0.1 Principles
     1.0.2 Absorption measurements
     1.0.3 Reflection measurement
1.1 Techniques for Static Absorption Measurements
     1.1.1 Technical realization of an optimal spectrophotometer for absorption and reflection
     1.1.2 Detection range at the wavelength and signal scale
     1.1.3 Data-acquisition methods
     1.1.4 Light path and spectral disturbance
     1.1.5 The optimal spectrophotometer
     1.1.6 A standard high-performance spectrophotometer
     1.1.7 Spectrophotometer with parallel wavelength detection
     1.1.8 Detection range on the wavelength and signal scale with parallel wavelength detection, and single-beam spectrophotometers
     1.1.9 Proposal for a universal sample chamber for dual-beam spectrophotometry
     1.1.10 Calibration and the definition of stray light
1.2 Dynamic Absorption Measurements
     1.2.1 Typical experiments
1.3 Special Absorption Techniques
     1.3.1 Atomic absorption spectroscopy
          1.3.1.1 The principle of an atomic absorption spectrometer
          1.3.1.2 Atomization
          1.3.1.3 Applicable elements for AAS
          1.3.1.4 Compensation techniques without broadband lamps
     1.3.2 Polarized transmission: CD and ORD
          1.3.2.1 The origin of circularly polarized light, with alternating circulation
          1.3.2.2 Set up and functionality of a CD spectrometer with ORD option
          1.3.2.3 Instrumental considerations
     1.3.3 Spectrometers for scattered transmission
          1.3.3.1 Absorption spectrophotometer with an extra-large detector
          1.3.3.2 Dual-beam fiber optic spectrophotometer for kinetics and scattering
          1.3.3.3 Absorption spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere
     1.3.4 Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) spectroscopy
          1.3.4.1 Basics
          1.3.4.2 Parameters that affect the PAS signal
          1.3.4.3 Setup of a PAS system
          1.3.4.4 Preferred PAS/OAS applications and referencing
References

2 Ellipsometry
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Elements of Spectroscopic Ellipsometers
     2.1.1 The Stokes parameters
     2.1.2 Research-grade spectroscopic ellipsometers
          2.1.2.1 Spectroscopic ellipsometer with a rotating polarizer
          2.1.2.2 Spectroscopic ellipsometer with rotating analyzer
2.2 Applications of Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
     2.2.1 Building blocks of SE for research, material analysis, and product definition
2.3 Basic Equations of RPSE Parameters Presented by Software and in Literature
2.4 Comparison between SE and Single-Wavelength Ellipsometry
2.5 Production-Oriented SE
     2.5.1 SE with parallel detection
     2.5.2 in situ SE
     2.5.3 SE with a reduced spot size
2.6 Data Origin and Reduction
2.7 Limits of the SE Method
     2.7.1 Measurement of P, the degree of polarization
2.8 SE Examples
2.9 Extensions of the Instrumentation for Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
     2.9.1 SE system for the deep UV
     2.9.2 SE system for the IR range
2.10 Calibration of SE Systems
2.11 Photometric Applications by SE Systems
References

3 Emission Spectroscopy
3.0 Introduction
     3.0.1 Instrumental technology for the acquisition of emission spectra
     3.0.2 Typical emission spectra
     3.0.3 Setup based on 2D Echelle spectrometers
          3.0.3.1 Stationary 2D Echelle spectrometer
          3.0.3.2 2D Echelle spectrometer with a small detector surface
          3.0.3.3 MCP-2D-Echelle spectrometer
     3.0.4 Scanning (Echelle) spectrometers
3.1 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
     3.1.1 Scanning AES
     3.1.2 Parallel-detecting AES
3.2 Cathodo luminescence spectroscopy
3.3 Spectroscopy at Inductively Coupled Plasma
     3.3.1 ICP examples
3.4 Spark Optical Emission Spectroscopy
3.5 Laser Ablation
3.6 Plasma Etching
3.7 Solar and Stellar Emission
3.8 Emission Measurements at Explosions and Flames
Reference

4 Luminescence
4.0 Introduction
     4.0.1 Parameters of luminescence measurements
     4.0.2 Requirements of luminescence measurements
4.1 Setup of a Static Luminescence Spectrophotometer
     4.1.1 Light path and spectral disturbance
     4.1.2 Details of a static photoluminescence spectrophotometer
          4.1.2.1 The excitation arm
          4.1.2.2 Creation of the reference signal
          4.1.2.3 Justification of a double monochromator in the excitation branch
          4.1.2.4 Illumination of the sample
          4.1.2.5 The emission light pass
          4.1.2.6 Spectral dispersion and processing of the luminescent light
     4.1.3 Measurement methods of static luminescence spectroscopy
          4.1.3.1 Emission scan
          4.1.3.2 Excitation scan
          4.1.3.3 Fluorescence polarization
          4.1.3.4 Acquisition of the total fluorescence
          4.1.3.5 Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)
          4.1.3.6 Two-photon excitation/upward luminescence
          4.1.3.7 Modulated excitation for NIR/IR, and phosphorescence
          4.1.3.8 Laser excitation
          4.1.3.9 Luminescence microscopy
          4.1.3.10 Confocal microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
          4.1.3.11 Remote luminescence
     4.1.4 Summary of the requirements for a static luminescence spectrophotometer
     4.1.5 Calibration, comparison of systems, and stray light tests
          4.1.5.1 Calibration
          4.1.5.2 Comparison of luminescence systems and performance test
          4.1.5.3 Weakness of the Raman-on-water method
          4.1.5.4 Stray light test of the excitation arm
          4.1.5.5 Stray light test of the emission arm
4.2 Dynamic Luminescence/Lifetime Measurements
     4.2.1 Available instrumentation
          4.2.1.1 Analysis of the change in the state of polarization
          4.2.1.2 Pulsed methods
          4.2.1.3 Synchronized integration, also called boxcar integration or pulse/sample analysis
          4.2.1.4 Single photon counting: TCSPC
     4.2.2 Continuous methods
          4.2.2.1 Phase/modulation analysis
          4.2.2.2 Setup of a phase/modulation system
          4.2.2.3 Multiharmonic Fourier transform systems
     4.2.3 Methods using parallel wavelength detection
          4.2.3.1 Synchronized CCD gating
          4.2.3.2 Modulated MCP/CCD analysis
     4.2.4 Pulsed excitation and streak camera detection
          4.2.4.1 Description of a streak camera lifetime system
References

5 Radiometry
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Radiometric Parameters
     5.1.1 Definition and measurement of the spectral radiant power
          5.1.1.1 The sphere
          5.1.1.2 Spectrometer
          5.1.1.3 Detectors
          5.1.1.4 Coupling
          5.1.1.5 Data collection, interpretation, and processing, exemplary for a radiant flux measurement
          5.1.1.6 System limits
     5.1.2 Measurement of the spectral irradiance E and the radiance L
          5.1.2.1 Fixed mounting of a sphere and spectrometer
          5.1.2.2 Definition of a sphere to work with a pre-defined V or steradian
          5.1.2.3 Interpretation
          5.1.2.4 Acquisition of radiation from pulsed sources
     5.1.3 Radiometry with parallel-detecting spectrographs
5.2 Radiometric Sample Illumination
     5.2.1 General requirements, independent from the application
          5.2.1.1 Bandwidth: the spectral bandwidth
          5.2.1.2 Bandwidth: the uniformity of the wavelength over the slitwidth
          5.2.1.3 Wavelength (wavenumber, photon energy, frequency): accuracy of the wavelength
          5.2.1.4 Wavelength range: the useful range
          5.2.1.5 Illuminated area: size and shape
          5.2.1.6 Irradiance E at the illuminated surface
          5.2.1.7 Uniformity of irradiance E over the illuminated area
          5.2.1.8 Stray light/false light, tolerated by the experiment
          5.2.1.9 Polarization
          5.2.1.10 Spectral illumination with a reference channel for calibrated flux of radiation
5.3 Analysis of Spectral and Power Spatial Distribution Provided by the System
     5.3.1 Reference analysis by a single point detector
     5.3.2 Analysis of spectral and power distribution over the illuminated field
5.4 Calibration of Radiometric Spectral Data
     5.4.1 Description of a realized system and its calibration with a certified source, enabling calibrated source analysis
          5.4.1.1 Experimental considerations
          5.4.1.2 Experimental operations
     5.4.2 Calibration facilities
References

6 Raman and Brillouin Spectroscopy
6.0 Introduction to Scattering Spectroscopy
6.1 The Principle of Raman Spectroscopy Measurements
6.2 Requirements for a Raman Spectrometer
     6.2.1 Spectrometer options
     6.2.2 Summary of wavelength dependence
6.3 Beam Travel and Spectral Interferences
6.4 Exemplary Raman and Brillouin Spectra
6.5 Design or Selection of Raman Spectrometers
     6.5.1 The wavelength of excitation
     6.5.2 Applicable distance of Raman signals
          6.5.2.1 Single-stage spectrometer with notch filter
          6.5.2.2 Double spectrometers versus single-stage systems
          6.5.2.3 Stray light consideration
          6.5.2.4 Spectrometers for measurements extremely close to the Rayleigh line, Brillouin spectrometers
          6.5.2.5 Triple spectrometers, the work horses of Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy
          6.5.2.6 Estimation on the impact of Rayleigh scattering in different systems
6.6 Special Raman Methods
     6.6.1 Raman versus fluorescence
     6.6.2 NIR Raman
     6.6.3 UV Raman
     6.6.4 Raman microscopy
          6.6.4.1 Confocal Raman microscopy
     6.6.5 Resonance Raman (RR)
     6.6.6 Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)
     6.6.7 Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)
References

7 Spectrometry of Laser Light
7.0 Introduction
     7.0.1 Near field and far field
     7.0.2 Considerations
7.1 Measurements in the UV�Vis�NIR Range
     7.1.1 Spectral analysis of lasers with single or rather distant lines, and small-beam cross-section (like He-Ne, argon ion, or other gas lasers)
          7.1.1.1 Required working range and bandwidth/resolution of the spectrometer
          7.1.1.2 High-resolution, single-stage spectrometer limits
          7.1.1.3 Ultra-high-resolution spectrometers
7.2 Fabry-Perot Interferometer
7.3 Spectral Measurements of Large Laser Images
7.4 Imaging Analysis
7.5 Hyperspectral Analysis
7.6 Commercial Analysis Systems
References

Index


Preface

My search for universal and comprehensive literature on dispersive optical spectroscopy revealed many gaps. The books with very basic information are rather theoretical and dig deep into arithmetic derivations to calculate spectrometers, illumination, and detection. The majority of books about the different applications of optical spectroscopy are either very theoretical or are "cookbooks" that do not explain the rationale for doing something a certain way. Even though several books bridge the gap between background knowledge and instrumental realization, I found none that combines the different techniques. The books with comprehensive content (available from the vendors of dispersers, spectrometers, detectors, and applied systems) naturally feature the advantages of the supported products, but they rarely offer an overall view.

For more than twenty years, I have calculated and delivered special dispersive spectroscopy systems for different applications. In the time between inquiry and decision, customers wanted to justify my presentation and compare it. A common problem was finding useful references to verify my calculations and predictions. So, I often, wrote long letters combining the different parameters of the project. Several of my customers - industrial project managers as well as researchers - not only acknowledged the proposals but also often used the papers to check the instrumental performance at delivery. Because the proposals fit the requirements and the predictions were at least reached, their confidence was earned. Customers used my papers for internal documentation and teaching.

Several asked me to provide the knowledge in a general, written database in order to encompass the theory, practice, and applications. After my retirement from regular work, I did just that and published my writing on my homepage (www.spectra-magic.de). The content has since been improved and extended into a pair of books, the second of which you are reading now. This volume complements my previous book, Fundamentals of Dispersive Optical Spectroscopy Systems (SPIE Press, 2014), which describes and evaluates the parameters relevant to spectrometer systems, as well as the most important equations and their interpretation for dispersion elements, basic spectrometer concepts, illumination, light transfer, and detection. In principle, it also combines the parameters of the components into function groups (building blocks) and performance curves; however, it only briefly touches on the requirements of the multiple, and very different, applications in optical spectroscopy. Separating the fundamentals and applications was necessary to keep the topics manageable and concise.

It is not the goal of this book to introduce the chemistry, biology, or physics behind applications. The theory is only discussed if it is required to discuss spectrophotometric parameters. Like every other kind of technical equipment, a certain solution benefits the user the better it fits the application requirements. Thus, it is useful to connect measurement needs and the available technology.

The aim of this book is to supply students, scientists, and technicians entering the field of optical spectroscopy with a complete and concise tutorial; to offer background knowledge, perspective, and technical details to system designers for reference purposes; and to provide an easy-to-read compendium for specialists familiar with the details of optical spectroscopy. The technical requirements are developed and converted or compared with existing solutions. In some cases, nonexistent "ideal" or "optimal" systems are defined because they will help determine what compromise must be made for the planned system. These comparisons can help estimate whether an experiment is possible by dispersive optical spectroscopy and within what limits. Engineers and laboratory technicians may support their work with background information about typical systems or - if required - justify existing systems with respect to other applications.

Acknowledgments

My thanks are first addressed to my wife, Heidi, for her patience during the months spent investigating, reviewing, and writing. I also thank those who urged me to start writing in the first place and who collected data and calculations. It is my pleasure to thank the numerous customers who challenged me with requirements not fulfilled by systems offered by existing systems, and their trust to buy systems without possible previous tests. I also appreciate the companies that employed me for over 30 years and supported my ideas and plans to implement the special systems. After the manuscript was given to SPIE, external reviewers spent much effort on the content, providing corrections and suggestions for improvement; that valuable support came from Mr. Robert Jarratt and Dr. Alexander Scheeline. Last but not least, I'd like to thank Tim Lamkins, Scott McNeill, and Kerry McManus Eastwood at SPIE for the work they invested into the project. I hope that readers will find useful details that further their interest or work.

Wilfried Neumann
December 2014


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