Advances in electro-optic remote sensing technologies now enable measurements to be made in a fraction of the size once required in earlier systems. Miniaturization of critical instrument technologies including optical systems, electronics, mechanisms, cryocoolers and sensors as well as increases in the density of semiconductor electronics and detector arrays now enable instruments to be made significantly smaller while achieving the same or better performance. Additionally, spacecraft technologies including navigation, C&DH, communications, power systems, and structures can be made in a fraction of the size enabling the entire satellite and instrument to be housed in “CubeSats” (where a single “U” is 10x10x10cm), and “SmallSats” where satellites are significantly smaller than traditional but not necessarily in the “U” form factor. These technologies lead to a significant reduction in instrument, spacecraft and launch costs, building robustness into current remote sensing programs and enabling new measurements to be made through more opportunity and through constellations of satellites to improve revisit time. Numerous challenges remain, including achieving legacy performance in a small package, power and data rate limitations, and mission reliability.

This conference is intended to explore all aspects of remote sensing with CubeSats and SmallSats including:

PAYLOAD TECHNOLOGIES
SPACECRAFT TECHNOLOGIES ;
Conference 11832

CubeSats and SmallSats for Remote Sensing V

1 - 5 August 2021
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 1 August
View Session ∨
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Enabling Technologies and Techniques
  • 3: Future Earth Missions: Climate and Space Weather
  • 4: Future Earth Missions: Land, Ocean, and Atmosphere
Session 1: Introduction
11832-1
Author(s): Steven C. Reising, Colorado State Univ. (United States); Todd C. Gaier, Shannon T. Brown, Sharmila Padmanabhan, Jet Propulsion Lab., Caltech (United States); Christian D. Kummerow, Wesley Berg, V. Chandrasekar, Colorado State Univ. (United States); Boon H. Lim, Jet Propulsion Lab., Caltech (United States); Cate Heneghan, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States), Caltech (United States); Richard Schulte, C. Radhakrishnan, Yuriy Goncharenko, Colorado State Univ. (United States); Matthew Pallas, Doug Laczkowski, Nancy Gaytan, Austin Bullard, Blue Canyon Technologies Inc. (United States)
11832-2
Author(s): Pamela E. Clark, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Ben K. Malphrus, Sean McNeil, Morehead State Univ. (United States); Nathan Fite, Morehead State Univ. (United Kingdom); Becca Mikula, Morehead State Univ. (United States); Cliff Brambora, Tilak Hewagama, Nicolas Gorius, David Folta, Terry Hurford, Jerrod Young, Deepak Patel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
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Lunar Ice Cube is a deep space cubesat mission with a primary goal of demonstrating a cubesat-scale instrument (BIRCHES) capable of improving our understanding of lunar volatile distribution (abundance, location, and transportation physics of water ice). BIRCHES final testing is nearly complete, with several changes made to the thermal design to improve detector performance. Final preflight instrument testing and calibration, emphasized here, are occurring under operational environment conditions in a small thermal vacuum chamber with an external heated plate adjusted to simulate the thermal signature BIRCHES will experience under mission conditions.
Session 2: Enabling Technologies and Techniques
11832-3
Author(s): Lucas Anderson, Joel Mork, Charles Swenson, Utah State Univ. (United States); A. J. Mastropietro, Jonathan Sauder, Ian McKinley, Mason Mok, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Bill Zwolinski, Kistler Instrument Corp. (United States)
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The Active Thermal Architecture (ATA) is an advanced sub-1U Active Thermal Control technology (ATC) for high power payload support for 6U CubeSat form factors and above. This paper will focus on the design and ground-based characterization and qualification of the ATA system and provide performance metrics for its use as a thermal support subsystem for advanced infrared electro-optical CubeSat payloads. The ATA project is funded through a NASA Small Satellite Technology Partnership (SSTP) and is a partnership between the Center for Space Engineering at Utah State University and the Jet Propulsions Laboratory. The ATA active thermal control system has been raised to a TRL of 6 and hopes to provide payload support to advanced missions such as the SABER-Lite and JPL CIRAS projects.
11832-4
Author(s): Purnima Purnima, Shweta Sharma, Kamal Kishor, Delhi Technological Univ. (India)
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In this paper, we report a novel design of Ku band microstrip patch antenna for satellite interchange application. The antenna design consist of RT/Duroid 5880 (dielectric constant 2.2) patch and substrate. Various antenna parameters such as far field radiation pattern, gain, directivity, input impedance and VSWR have been obtained and analyzed. The designed antenna has been thoroughly analyzed by varying geometrical parameters of patch to study their impact on return loss, gain and directivity enhancement, which helps to optimize the design as per our application. The proposed antenna is excited by a 50 Ω microstrip transmission line and the antenna has achieved good impedance matching. The reported antenna design has been optimized to operate in the Ku band at resonant frequency 12.75 GHz for the wide range of application in satellite communications, direct-transmission satellites or satellite television etc.
11832-5
Author(s): Roshan Sah, Raunak Srivastava, Kaushik Das, Tata Consultancy Services, Ltd. (India)
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Today's world of space's primary concern is the uncontrolled growth of space debris and its probability of collision with spacecraft, particularly in the Low earth orbit regions. To prevent this, measures have to be taken so that there will be a debris reduction to conserve the space environment and reduce the risk of any collision. This concern has developed the concept of Active Debris Removal (ADR). This paper describes one of the concepts of de-orbiting using propulsive force as a decelerating force for small satellites. This paper is aimed to design the micro-propulsion system, Cold Gas Thruster, to deorbit our small satellite from 550km to 350 km height after the end-of-life with the least difficulty compared to other active and passive methods of deorbiting. All the components are designed in the CATIA V5, and the structural analysis is done in the ANSYS tools. The concept of Hohmann transfer has been used to deorbit the small satellite, and STK has been used to simulate it.
11832-6
Author(s): Raunak Srivastava, Roshan Sah, Kaushik Das, Tata Consultancy Services, Ltd. (India)
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Attitude estimation or determination is a fundamental task for satellites to remain effectively operational. This task is furthermore complicated on small satellites by the limited space and computational power available on-board leading to a lack of high precision sensors. Small satellites, on account of their size and weight, are also more sensitive to orbital disturbances as compared to their larger counterparts. Magnetic disturbance forms the major contributor to orbital disturbances on small satellites in lower earth orbits (LEO). This magnetic disturbance depends on the residual magnetic moment (RMM) of the satellite itself, which for higher accuracy should be determined in real-time. This paper presents a method for in-orbit estimation of the satellite magnetic dipole in order to circumnavigate the inaccuracy arising due to the unknown orbital magnetic disturbances using only a magnetometer as the sensor.
11832-7
Author(s): Christopher Ball, The Ohio State Univ. (United States); Paul Grogan, I. Josue Tapia-Tamayo, Stevens Institute of Technology (United States); Andrew O'Brien, Joel Johnson, The Ohio State Univ. (United States); Matthew French, Marco Paolieri, Information Sciences Institute, The Univ. of Southern California (United States)
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The New Observing Strategies thrust envisions new distributed mission concepts for Earth remote sensing missions. Supporting analysis tools evaluate and mature enabling technology for constellations of SmallSats or CubeSats to measure phenomena previously inaccessible by traditional mission concepts. This talk describes efforts to create a powerful new technology validation and mission planning tool that integrates the Trade-space Analysis Tools for Constellations (TAT-C) co-developed by Stevens Institute of Technology, the Simulation Toolset for Adaptive Remote Sensing (STARS) developed by The Ohio State University, and the Virtual Constellation Engine (VCE) developed by the University of Southern California.
Session 3: Future Earth Missions: Climate and Space Weather
11832-9
Author(s): Colin Harrop, Eltahry Elghandour, California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo (United States); Kodi Rider, Thomas Immel, Space Sciences Lab., Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)
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The Miniaturized Ultraviolet Imager (MUVI), is a compact wide field UV imaging instrument in development at UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory and Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo. MUVI is designed to fit in a 2U CubeSat form factor and provide wide field, high resolution images of the ionosphere at far ultraviolet wavelengths. This paper details the design and analyses of MUVI’s deployable cover mirror mounting flexures. Three different flexure geometries were evaluated, a front-runner will be determined based on a number of criteria including isolation of vibration and stress to the mirrors, manufacturability and cost. The design of the flexure system includes the flexure blades themselves, Invar pads bonded to the mirror, and ground support equipment for assembly and testing. The flexures are evaluated with FEA prior to manufacturing and testing. Testing consists of random vibration tests of the three flexure designs and posttest alignment with an autocollimator.
11832-10
Author(s): Andrew C. Nicholas, Kenneth F. Dymond, Scott A. Budzien, Andrew W. Stephan, Bruce A. Fritz, Ted T. Finne, Charles M. Brown, U.S. Naval Research Lab. (United States)
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Metal atoms and ions are deposited into the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere and Ionosphere via meteor ablation. The neutral atoms can undergo charge exchange with extant O+, O2+, & N2+ ions to become metallic ions. Metallic ions have lifetimes of several days in the ionosphere, these ions are known to produce thin layers which can produce Sporadic-E. Mg+ is a proxy for the metallic ions and it is measurable from space. The Triple Magnesium Ionospheric Photometer (Tri-MIP) instrument was developed by US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to observe optical emissions from magnesium ions in the Earth’s atmosphere from space. This CubeSat compatible Space Weather sensor is a 1U ionospheric photometer that observes the ultraviolet 280 nm emission of magnesium ions on the sunlit portion of the orbit. The primary objective is to characterize the Mg+ distribution in the Earth’s atmosphere. We present the Tri-MIP instrument concept, laboratory measurements and upcoming mission concepts.
11832-11
Author(s): George Guentchev, Mustafa M. Bayer, Xun Li, Ozdal Boyraz, University of California, Irvine (United States)
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In this work, we designed a 12U CubeSat Platform for a Multi-Tone Continuous Wave Lidar system, utilizing coherent detection, which is used as an optical altimetry and velocimetry measurement device. The spacecraft is designed to be operational for a period of 6 to 12 months, and the primary goals are to develop a standalone small spacecraft technology that enables an optical remote sensing. Here, we describe the mechanical design and the thermal analysis of the spacecraft. Due to the random vibration and shock response during launching, a vibration isolation was designed to protect the optical components and alignments. The necessity of high optical power creates thermally localized hot spots that need to be dissipated while remaining in the operational temperature range. We designed thermal dissipation systems, including radiators, heat pipes, thermo-electric coolers, and used space-grade exterior paint to sustain the operation of the MTCW Lidar in the 12U CS.
Session 4: Future Earth Missions: Land, Ocean, and Atmosphere
11832-12
Author(s): Thomas S. Pagano, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Thomas Kampe, Ball Aerospace (United States); Mark Schwochert, Sir B. Rafol, Brian Monacelli, Dean L. Johnson, Daniel W. Wilson, David Z. Ting, Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States); Megan S. Gibson, Sierra Lobo, Inc. (United States); James Howell, Ball Aerospace (United States)
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Technological advancements in detectors, cryocoolers, infrared spectrometers and optical materials enables hyperspectral infrared atmospheric sounding in a CubeSat. Legacy instruments such as NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) measure the upwelling spectrum to retrieve temperature profiles and atmospheric water vapor. These data are assimilated by National Weather Prediction (NWP) centers worldwide and have had significant positive impact to the operational forecasts. A technology demonstration of a CubeSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (CIRAS) has completed brassboard development and ambient testing at JPL. Results of the testing show the CIRAS performs exceptionally well and meets the performance required for an operational system. Additional testing is planned in thermal vacuum to characterize and qualify the system in the expected operational environment.
11832-14
Author(s): Steven P. Love, Logan A. Ott, Kirk W. Post, Magdalena E. Dale, Claira L. Safi, Kerry G. Boyd, Hannah D. Mohr, Christian R. Ward, Michael P. Caffrey, James P. Theiler, Bernard R. Foy, Markus P. Hehlen, Charles G. Peterson, Ryan L. Hemphill, James A. Wren, Arthur A. Guthrie, Nicholas A. Dallmann, Paul S. Stein, Manvendra K. Dubey, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
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NACHOS is a high-throughput (f/2.9), high spectral resolution (~1.5 nm optical, 0.6 nm sampling) hyperspectral imager operating in the 300-500 nm region. The complete instrument/host-bus package comprises a 3U CubeSat. With a 15-degree across-track field of view, NACHOS provides a spatial resolution of 0.4 km from 500 km altitude. We discuss its optical design, onboard gas-retrieval processing, robustness to vibration, onboard calibration system, and potential science missions, including NO2 as a proxy for fossil-fuel greenhouse gases, SO2 at pre-eruptive volcanoes, wildfire CH2O, and aerosol characterization. The NACHOS project is slated to launch two CubeSats in late 2021 and early 2022.
11832-15
Author(s): Kirk W. Post, Logan A. Ott, Magdalena E. Dale, Claira L. Safi, Kerry G. Boyd, Hannah D. Mohr, James P. Theiler, Bernard R. Foy, Markus P. Hehlen, Christian R. Ward, Michael P. Caffrey, Charles G. Peterson, Ryan L. Hemphill, Manvendra K. Dubey, Steven P. Love, Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)
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Hyperspectral imaging with sufficient resolution and sensitivity for scientifically useful space-based mapping of trace gases has long required expensive large-satellite instruments. Miniaturizing this capability to a CubeSat configuration is a major challenge, but opens up more agile and far less expensive observing strategies. A major step in this direction is our development of NACHOS, an ultra-compact (1.5U instrument, 3U complete CubeSat) hyperspectral imager covering the 300-500nm spectral range in 350 channels. Here we describe laboratory and field performance characterization of this new instrument. Findings from optical and environmental tests, performed in preparation for a scheduled early-2022 launch, along with simulations of gas retrieval, demonstrate the spectrometer design is extremely robust and well-suited for satellite-based deployment.
11832-16
Author(s): Roshan Sah, Raunak Srivastava, Kaushik Das, Tata Consultancy Services, Ltd. (India)
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A constellation of remote sensing small satellite system has been developed for infrastructure monitoring in India by using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Payload. The LEO constellation of the small satellites is designed in a way, which can cover the entire footprint of India. Since India lies little above the equatorial region, the orbital parameters are adjusted iteratively so, whole coverage can be maintained. Each satellite is capable of taking multiple look images with a minimum resolution of 1m per pixel and swath width of 30km. The multiple look images captured by the SAR payload help in continuous infrastructure monitoring of our interested footprint in India. To support the missions, each small satellite is supplied with different ADCS sensors along with an X-band Communication payload. High-performance batteries are used along with an origami design panel for efficient solar power conversion. Each satellite has 60-80 kg of total mass and costs around $ 0.8M to develop.
11832-17
Author(s): Mayuresh Sarpotdar, Amal Chandran, Kashyapa Bramha Naren Athreyas, Shanmugasundaram Selvadurai, Sarthak Srivastava, Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore); Martin Kaufmann, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Friedhelm Olschewski, Bergische Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Tom Neubert, Heinz Rongen, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany)
Session 1: Introduction
Session 2: Enabling Technologies and Techniques
11832-8
Author(s): Matthew Kelley, Henry Helvajian, Shawn M. Perdue, Marlon E. Sorge, John P. McVey, Glenn E. Peterson, The Aerospace Corp. (United States)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 1 August
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The feasibility of a novel lidar-based sensor of space debris is tested in a laboratory setting using a low-power transmitter and simplified receiver. The transmitter employs a Powell lens to spread transmitted laser light into a fan shape, in order to measure particles or objects moving through the beam. Link budget calculation based on a model are validated. Additionally, several important considerations for future deployment on a satellite are identified.
Session 3: Future Earth Missions: Climate and Space Weather
Session 4: Future Earth Missions: Land, Ocean, and Atmosphere
11832-13
Author(s): Patrick Gatlin, H. Philip Stahl, Tomasz Lis, NASA Marshall Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Joseph M. Howard, Jonathan C. Papa, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr. (United States); Patrick Reardon, The Univ. of Alabama in Huntsville (United States); Timothy Lang, NASA Marshall Space Flight Ctr. (United States)
Digital Forum: On-demand starting 1 August
Conference Chair
Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Conference Chair
Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Conference Chair
NASA Earth Science Technology Office (United States)
Program Committee
MIT Lincoln Lab. (United States)
Program Committee
Pamela E. Clark
Jet Propulsion Lab. (United States)
Program Committee
cosine B.V. (Netherlands)
Program Committee
Martin Kaufmann
Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)
Program Committee
European Space Research and Technology Ctr. (Netherlands)
Program Committee
Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (United States)
Program Committee
Colorado State Univ. (United States)
Program Committee
Roger Walker
European Space Research and Technology Ctr. (Netherlands)
Additional Information
This conference is accepting post-deadline submissions through 15 June 2021:
Post-Deadline Submission Portal
Post-deadline authors will be notified by 1 July 2021

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