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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Optomechanical Design and Analysis
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Book Description

Optomechanics is a field of mechanics that addresses the specific design challenges associated with optical systems. Intended for practicing optical and mechanical engineers whose work involves both fields, this SPIE Field Guide describes how to mount optical components, as well as how to analyze a given design. Common issues involved with mounting optical components are discussed, including stress, glass strength, thermal effects, vibration, and errors due to motion. This handy reference also has a useful collection of material properties for glasses, metals, and adhesives, along with guidelines for tolerancing optics and machined parts.

Book Details

Date Published: 1 August 2012
Pages: 168
ISBN: 9780819491619
Volume: FG26
Errata

Table of Contents
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Glossary of Symbols and Acronyms

Image Motion and Orientation
Optical Effects of Mechanical Motion
Lens and Mirror Motion
Plane Parallel Plate
General Image-Motion Equations
Image Motion Example
Rigid Body Rotation
Quantifying Pointing Error
Image Orientation
Mirror Matrices
Mirror Rotation Matrices
Cone Intersecting a Plane

Stress, Strain, and Material Strength
Stress and Strain
Strain-vs-Stress Curve
Safety Factor
Glass Strength
Stress Birefringence

Precision Positioning
Kinematic Constraint
Example Constraints and Degrees of Freedom
Semi-Kinematic Design
Issues with Point Contacts
More on Point Contacts
Precision Motion
Stage Terminology
Linear Stages
Rotation and Tilt Stages
Errors in Stage Motion

Precision Fastening and Adjustments
Standard Hardware
Example Screws
Fastener Strength
Tightening Torque
Adjusters
Differential Screws and Shims
Liquid Pinning
Electronic Drivers
Flexures
Stiffness Relations for Single-Strip Flexures
Parallel Leaf Strip Flexures
Stiffness Relations for Parallel Leaf Strip Flexures
Notch Hinge Flexures
Adhesives
Adhesive Properties
Adhesive Thickness and Shape Factor
Thermal Stress
Choice of Bond Size and Thickness

Mounting of Optical Components
Lens Mounts: Off the Shelf
More Off-the-Shelf Lens Mounts
Lens Mounting: Custom
Calculating Torque and Clearance
Potting a Lens with Adhesive
Clamped Flange Mount
Lens Barrel Assemblies
Lens Barrel Assembly Types
More Lens Barrel Assembly Types
Surface-Contact Interfaces
More Surface-Contact Interfaces
Prism Types
More Prism Types
Image-Rotation Prisms
Image-Erection Prisms
Prism and Beamsplitter Mounting
Thin-Wedge Systems
Window Mounting
Domes
Dome Strength
Small-Mirror Mounts: Off the Shelf
Small-Mirror Mounts: Adhesives and Clamping
Small-Mirror Mounts: Tangent Flexure and Hub
Mirror Substrates
More on Mirror Substrates
Mirror Substrate Examples
Large-Mirror Mounting: Lateral Supports
Large-Mirror Mounting: Point Supports
Large-Mirror Mounting: Active Supports
Self-Weight Deflection: General
Self-Weight Deflection: Thin Plates
Self-Weight Deflection: Parametric Model
Lightweighting Mirrors
Flexural Rigidity of Lightweighted Mirrors

Design Considerations and Analysis
RMS, P-V, and Slope Specifications
Finite Element Analysis
Vibration
Damping Factor
Isolation
System Acceleration and Displacement
Thermal Effects
More Thermal Effects
Heat Flow
Air Index of Refraction
Athermalization
Passive Athermalization
Active Athermalization
Determining Thermally Induced Stress
Alignment
Optical and Mechanical Axis of a Lens
Alignment Tools

Tolerancing
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
GD&T Terminology
GD&T Symbology
ISO 10110 Standard

Appendices
Tolerance Guides
Clean-Room Classifications
Shipping Environments: Vibration
Shipping Environments: Drop Heights
Unit Conversions
Cost and Performance Tradeoffs for Linear Stages
Torque Charts
Adhesive Properties
Glass Properties
Metal Properties

Equation Summary

Glossary

Bibliography

Index



Preface

Optomechanics is a field of mechanics that addresses the specific design challenges associated with optical systems. This Field Guide describes how to mount optical components, as well as how to analyze a given design. It is intended for practicing optical and mechanical engineers whose work requires knowledge in both optics and mechanics.

Throughout the text, we describe typical mounting approaches for lenses, mirrors, prisms, and windows; standard hardware and the types of adjustments and stages available to the practicing engineer are also included. Common issues involved with mounting optical components are discussed, including stress, glass strength, thermal effects, vibration, and errors due to motion. A useful collection of material properties for glasses, metals, and adhesives, as well as guidelines for tolerancing optics and machined parts can be found throughout the book.

The structure of the book follows Jim Burge's optomechanics course curriculum at the University of Arizona. We offer our thanks to all those who helped with the book's development and who provided content and input. Much of the subject matter and many of the designs are derived from the work of Paul Yoder and Dan Vukobratovich; their feedback is greatly appreciated.

Katie Schwertz
Edmund Optics(R)

Jim Burge
College of Optical Sciences
University of Arizona


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