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Spie Press Book

Military Displays: Technology and Applications
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Book Description

This first-of-its-kind tutorial on military displays begins with a discussion of fundamentals and leads to an understanding of how displays used by the U.S. Armed Forces differ from their counterparts in the civil sector. Advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, beginning display industry professionals, or anyone who wants to know about display fundamentals with an eye to military applications and the military market will benefit from the detailed information herein. In a simple building-block approach, fundamental concepts such as the lumen, luminous intensity, and illuminance are reviewed, and the author progresses with a discussion of the many display technologies, such as CRT, AMLCD, and AMOLED, as well as display subcomponents, such as backlights, polarizers, and dimming circuitry, before ending with an exposition of the military market itself. The latter includes an identification of performance parameter values, not only for the broad arena of fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, but also tracked and wheeled vehicles, dismounted soldiers, and command and control facilities. Military Displays: Technology and Applications gives the reader insight to the more than 647 line-replaceable units for display used by these categories of platforms in the U.S. military today.

Book Details

Date Published: 21 January 2013
Pages: 170
ISBN: 9780819491558
Volume: TT95

Table of Contents
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Introduction

1 Display Fundamentals
1.1 Lumen
1.2 Luminous Flux
1.3 Luminous Intensity
1.4 Illuminance
1.5 Luminance
1.6 Grayscale
1.7 Contrast Ratio
1.8 Dimming Ratio
1.9 Duty Factor
1.10 Dwell Time
1.11 Resolution
1.12 Viewing Angle
1.13 Color Chromaticity Coordinates

2 Military Display Technologies
2.1 Cathode Ray Tube
2.2 Liquid Crystal Display
    2.2.1 Dichroic liquid crystal display
    2.2.2 Twisted nematic liquid crystal display
    2.2.3 Passive liquid crystal display
    2.2.4 Active matrix liquid crystal display
2.3 Light-Emitting Diode Display
    2.3.1 Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode
2.4 Electromechanical
2.5 Plasma Displays
    2.5.1 Direct-current plasma displays
    2.5.2 Alternating-current plasma displays
    2.5.3 Neon
2.6 Incandescence
2.7 Electroluminescence
    2.7.1 Alternating-current thin-film electroluminescence
    2.7.2 Alternating-current thick-film electroluminescence
    2.7.3 Direct-current thick-film electroluminescence
    2.7.4 Direct-current thin-film electroluminescence
2.8 Liquid Crystal on Silicon
2.9 Digital-Micromirror-Device Microelectromechanical System
2.10 Biaxial-Scanning-Mirror Microelectromechanical System
2.11 Hybrids: Electromechanical Light-Emitting Diodes and Cathode-Ray-Tube Liquid Crystal Displays
2.12 Three-Dimensional Displays

3 Display Components
3.1 Backlights
    3.1.1 Cold- and hot-cathode fluorescent lamps
    3.1.2 Light-emitting diode backlights
3.2 Polarizers
    3.2.1 Circular and elliptical polarizers
3.3 Dimming Circuitry
    3.3.1 Light-emitting diode backlight dimming
3.4 Diffusers
3.5 Brightness Enhancement Filters
3.6 Fiber Optic Light Pipe
3.7 Color Filters
3.8 Tape Automated Bonding
3.9 Chip on Glass
3.10 Chip on Foil

4 Military Display Characterization
4.1 Display Categories and Groups
4.2 Size Definition
4.3 Direct-View Displays
4.4 Virtual-View Displays: Head-Up Displays, Night Vision Goggles, Head- or Helmet-Mounted Displays, and Electronic Sights
4.5 Head-Up and Head-Down Displays
4.6 Low and High Information Content
4.7 Design Class

5 Military Applications
5.1 Sizes
    5.1.1 Display size as a percent of Department of Defense market share
5.2 Technologies
    5.2.1 Vanishing vendor and aging technologies by group
5.3 High Versus Low Information Content
5.4 Design Class
5.5 Performance Parameters
    5.5.1 Performance parameters for avionics displays
        5.5.1.1 Military avionics display sizes
        5.5.1.2 Military avionics luminance and contrast ratio
        5.5.1.3 Military avionics display night vision goggle compatibility
        5.5.1.4 Military avionics resolution
        5.5.1.5 Military avionics display viewing angles
        5.5.1.6 Military avionics display operating/nonoperating altitude limits
        5.5.1.7 Military avionics display operating/nonoperating temperature range
    5.5.2 Military vetronics display performance parameters
        5.5.2.1 Military vetronics display sizes
        5.5.2.2 Military vetronics luminance and contrast ratio
        5.5.2.3 Military vetronics resolution
        5.5.2.4 Military vetronics shock and vibration specifications
        5.5.2.5 Military vetronics operating/nonoperating temperature range
    5.5.3 Dismounted soldier display performance parameters
        5.5.3.1 Dismounted soldier display sizes and technologies
        5.5.3.2 Dismounted soldier display luminance and contrast ratio
        5.5.3.3 Dismounted soldier display resolution
        5.5.3.4 Dismounted soldier display gray shades and colors
        5.5.3.5 Dismounted soldier display night vision goggle compatibility
        5.5.3.6 Dismounted soldier display operating/nonoperating temperature range
        5.5.3.7 Dismounted soldier display operating/nonoperating altitude limits
    5.5.4 Command and control facility performance parameters
        5.5.4.1 Command and control facility display sizes and technologies
        5.5.4.2 Command and control facility display resolution
        5.5.4.3 Summary of research development test and evaluation support complex satellite operations

Appendix A Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms
Appendix B Glossary of Military Equipment

References
Index

Preface

This text requires little or no prior knowledge of displays by the reader and only a brief knowledge in the sciences. Therefore, it begins by discussing the fundamentals, commencing with a definition of the lumen, and develops other key concepts such as luminous flux, luminous density, contrast, and gray levels. Every effort has been made to present a simple building-block approach that allows the inter-relation and solidity of these terms to be well understood.

Examples of the many existing display technologies in fielded military systems are discussed, including fading technologies such as cathode ray tubes (CRTs), but also and especially advancing technologies such as active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) and active matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs). These discussions are then followed by a look at major display device subcomponents: backlights, polarizers, dimming circuitry, diffusers, lightenhancement filters, color filters, etc.

In Chapter 4, military platform categories and groups are outlined, as these set a basis for design parameters. Fundamental display characteristics are defined (e.g., size, direct or virtual view, head-up or head-down display, low or high information content), further delineating displays, regardless of platform. Design class is included as a way of looking at Department of Defense (DoD) displays according to investment dollars and industrial base.

A major thrust of this tutorial is an overview of the military display market itself, including performance parameter tables for fixed and rotary-wing aircraft, tracked and wheeled vehicles, dismounted soldiers and downed pilots, and command and control (C2) facilities. Included are a number of other tables that lay out more generalized trends in the DoD market, e.g., display size as a percentage of DoD market share, defense display market by technology, defense display market by design class, and identification of vanishing vendor and aging technologies by DoD platform group.

The reader will benefit from this work by gaining a working knowledge of display fundamentals as well as broad insight into the strength and vigor of the DoD display market.With more than 640 weapon-system platforms and 1,200,000 force-projection displays, the DoD display arena is indeed a rather large and growing niche market.

Daniel D. Desjardins
February 2013


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