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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Radiometry
Author(s): Barbara G. Grant
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Book Description

Written from a systems engineering perspective, this Field Guide covers topics in optical radiation propagation, material properties, sources, detectors, system components, measurement, calibration, and photometry. Appendices provide material on SI units, conversion factors, source luminance data, and many other subjects. The book's organization and extensive collection of diagrams, tables, and graphs will enable the reader to efficiently identify and apply relevant information to radiometric problems arising amid the demands of today's fast-paced technical environment.


Book Details

Date Published: 4 November 2011
Pages: 134
ISBN: 9780819488275
Volume: FG23
Errata

Table of Contents
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Glossary of Symbols and Acronyms

Introduction to Radiometry
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
The Basics

Propagation of Optical Radiation
Plane and Solid Angles
Projected Area and Projected Solid Angle
f/# and Numerical Aperture
Radiometric Quantities Summarized
Photon Quantities
Spectral Radiant Quantities
Radiance, Radiant Exitance, and Intensity
Exitance-Radiance Relationship
Intensity
Isotropic and Lambertian Sources
Inverse Square Law of Irradiance
Cos3 and Cos4 Laws of Irradiance
Throughput and its Invariance
Area and Solid Angle Products
Basic Radiance and Radiance Invariance
The Equation of Radiative Transfer
Configuration Factors
Power Transfer: Point Source
Power Transfer: Extended Source
Power Transfer: Field Lens Added
Irradiance from a Lambertian Disk
Irradiance from a Lambertian Sphere
The Integrating Sphere
Camera Equation and Image Plane Irradiance

Radiometric Properties of Materials
Overview of Material Properties
Transmission
Reflection
Absorption and the Conservation of Energy
Emission
Specular Transmissivity and Reflectivity
Single-Surface Illustrations
More on Specular Propagation
Transmission: Absorbing and Reflecting Materials
Materials as Targets
Optical Materials Selection Considerations

Generation of Optical Radiation
Planck's Law
Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien Displacement Laws
Rayleigh-Jeans and Wien Approximations
Radiation Laws in Terms of Photons
Kirchoff's Law
Natural Sources
Lambert-Bouguer-Beer Law and Langley Plot
Artificial Sources
Luminescent Mechanisms
Some Luminescent Sources

Detectors of Optical Radiation
Detector Types
Detector Definitions
More Detector Definitions
Detector Figures of Merit
Noise Concepts and Definitions
The Most Unpleasant Noises
More Unpleasant Noises
Thermal Detectors
Thermoelectric Detectors
The Bolometer
Pyroelectric Detectors
Photon Detectors
Photoconductive Detectors
Photoemissive Detectors
Photovoltaic Detectors
Photovoltaic Current and Performance
Detector Interfacing
Single and Multiple Detectors
Detector Array Architectures
Choosing a Detector

Radiometric System Components
Choppers and Radiation References
Baffles and Cosine Correctors
Spectral Separation Mechanisms
Prisms and Gratings
Filters

Calibration and Measurement
Radiometric Calibration Basics
Radiometric Calibration Philosophy
Distant Point Source Calibration
Collimators and the Distant Small Source
More on Collimators
Extended Source Calibrations
Other Calibration Methods
The Measurement Equation
Errors in Measurements
Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Measurement Error
The Range Equation
Radiometric Temperatures

Photometry
Photometric Quantities
Human Visual Response
Color
Sources and the Eye's Response

Appendices
SI Base Quantities, Prefixes, and Uncertainty Reporting
Physical Constants: 2010 CODATA Recommended Values
Source Luminance Values
More Source Values
Solid Angle Relationships
Rays, Stops, and Pupils
Diffraction
Action Spectra and Optical Radiation Regions

Equation Summary

References

Bibliography

Index


Preface

Based on the SPIE bestseller The Art of Radiometry by James M. Palmer and Barbara G. Grant, this Field Guide provides a practical, hands-on approach to the subject that the engineer, scientist, or student can use in real time. Readers of the earlier work will recognize similar topics in condensed form, along with many new figures and a chapter on photometry.

Written from a systems engineering perspective, this book covers topics in optical radiation propagation, material properties, sources, detectors, system components, measurement, calibration, and photometry. Appendices provide material on SI units, conversion factors, source luminance data, and many other subjects. The book's organization and extensive collection of diagrams, tables and graphs will enable the reader to efficiently identify and apply relevant information to radiometric problems arising amid the demands of today's fast-paced technical environment.

I gratefully acknowledge the contributions to my education and career from three professors of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona, gentlemen all. They are the late Jim Palmer (1937-2007), who mentored me in radiometry for many years and provided the opportunity for me to complete The Art of Radiometry; Emeritus Professor Phil Slater, who selected me as a graduate student and trained me in remote sensing, and who continues to encourage and support me; and Eustace Dereniak, who generously shared his knowledge from the very first, provided me my first opportunities to teach, and has strongly supported my career for more than twenty years. To all, my heartfelt thanks.

This book is dedicated to my family and particularly to the memory of my father, William Grant of Chicago, Illinois, a US Navy veteran of WWII who taught me to play the "Garryowen" as soon as my fingers could reach a piano keyboard.

Barbara G. Grant
October 2011


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