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Spie Press Book

Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Second Edition
Author(s): Hong Xiao
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Book Description

IC chip manufacturing processes, such as photolithography, etch, CVD, PVD, CMP, ion implantation, RTP, inspection, and metrology, are complex methods that draw upon many disciplines. Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies, Second Edition thoroughly describes the complicated processes with minimal mathematics, chemistry, and physics; it covers advanced concepts while keeping the contents accessible to readers without advanced degrees. Designed as a textbook for college students, this book provides a realistic picture of the semiconductor industry and an in-depth discussion of IC chip fabrication technology. The text focuses on current fabrication technologies, but older technologies are discussed for historical context.

Book Details

Date Published: 19 November 2012
Pages: 704
ISBN: 9780819490926
Volume: PM220

Table of Contents
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Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
List of Acronyms

Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 Brief History of Integrated Circuits
1.2 Brief Overview of Integrated Circuits
1.3 Summary
1.4 Bibliography
1.5 Review Questions

Chapter 2. Introduction to Integrated Circuit Fabrication
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Yield
2.3 Cleanroom Basics
2.4 Basic Structure of an Integrated Circuit Fabrication Facility
2.5 Testing and Packaging
2.6 Future Trends
2.7 Summary
2.8 Bibliography
2.9 Review Questions

Chapter 3. Semiconductor Basics
3.1 What Is a Semiconductor?
3.2 Basic Devices
3.3 Integrated Circuit Chips
3.4 Basis Integrated Circuit Processes
3.5 Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
3.6 Technology Trends after 2000
3.7 Summary
3.8 Bibliography
3.9 Review Questions

Chapter 4. Wafer Manufacturing, Epitaxy, and Substrate Engineering
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Why Silicon?
4.3 Crystal Structures and Defects
4.4 Sand to Wafer
4.5 Epitaxial Silicon Deposition
4.6 Substrate Engineering
4.7 Summary
4.8 Bibliography
4.9 Review Questions

Chapter 5. Thermal Processes
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Thermal Process Hardware
5.3 Oxidation
5.4 Diffusion
5.5 Annealing
5.6 High-Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition
5.7 Rapid Thermal Processing
5.8 Recent Developments
5.9 Summary
5.10 Bibliography
5.11 Review Questions

Chapter 6. Photolithography
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Photoresist
6.3 Photolithography Process
6.4 Lithographic Technology Trends
6.5 Safety
6.6 Summary
6.7 Bibliography
6.8 Review questions

Chapter 7. Plasma Basics
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Definition of Plasma
7.3 Collisions in Plasma
7.4 Plasma Parameters
7.5 Ion Bombardment
7.6 Direct-Current Bias
7.7 Advantage of Plasma Processes
7.8 Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition and Plasma Etch Chambers
7.9 Remote Plasma Processes
7.10 High-Density Plasma
7.11 Summary
7.12 Bibliography
7.13 Review Questions

Chapter 8. Ion Implantation
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Ion Implantation Basics
8.3 Ion Implantation Hardware
8.4 Ion Implantation Process
8.5 Safety
8.6 Recent Developments and Applications
8.7 Summary
8.8 Bibliography
8.9 Review Questions

Chapter 9. Etch
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Etch Basics
9.3 Wet Etch Process
9.4 Plasma (Dry) Etch
9.5 Plasma Etch Processes
9.6 Process Trends
9.7 Recent Developments
9.8 Summary
9.9 Bibliography
9.10 Review Questions

Chapter 10. Chemical Vapor Deposition and Dielectric Thin Films
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition
10.3 Applications of Dielectric Thin Films
10.4 Dielectric thin-film characteristics
10.5 Dielectric Chemical Vapor Deposition Processes
10.6 Spin-On Glass
10.7 High-Density Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition
10.8 Dielectric Chemical Vapor Deposition Chamber Cleaning
10.9 Process Trends and Troubleshooting
10.10 Recent Developments
10.11 Summary
10.12 Bibliography
10.13 Review Questions

Chapter 11. Metallization
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Conducting Thin Films
11.3 Metal Thin-Film Characteristics
11.4 Metal Chemical Vapor Deposition
11.5 Physical Vapor Deposition
11.6 Copper Metallization
11.7 Safety
11.8 Summary
11.9 Bibliography
11.10 Review Questions

Chapter 12. Chemical Mechanical Polishing
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Chemical Mechanical Polishing Hardware
12.3 Chemical Mechanical Polishing Slurries
12.4 Chemical Mechanical Polishing Basics
12.5 Chemical Mechanical Polishing Processes
12.6 Recent Developments
12.7 Summary
12.8 Bibliography
12.9 Review Questions

Chapter 13. Process Integration
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Wafer Preparation
13.3 Isolations
13.4 Well Formation
13.5 Transistor Formation
13.6 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with High-k and Metal Gates
13.7 Interconnections
13.8 Passivation
13.9 Summary
13.10 Bibliography
13.11 Review Questions

Chapter 14. Integrated Circuit Processing Technologies
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Process Flow of the Early 1980s
14.3 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Process Flow with 1990s Technology
14.4 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Process Flow with Technology after 2000
14.5 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Process Flow with Technology after 2010
14.6 Memory Chip Manufacturing Processes
14.7 Summary
14.8 Bibliography
14.9 Review Questions

Chapter 15. Future Trends and Summary
15.1 Bibliography


When the first edition was published in 2001, the leading-edge IC technology node was about 130 nm. Shortly after the publication of the first edition, I attended an international IC technology conference where 90 nm was the leading-edge technology node of IC manufacturing. Former Honda CEO Hiroyuki Yoshino gave a keynote speech in which he talked about ASIMO, the robot Honda introduced in 2000. At that time, ASIMO could understand some simple words and follow few verbal instructions to walk slowly and speak simple words. Mr. Yoshino envisioned that in the future, humanoids like ASIMO would be able to run, walk forward and backward, and navigate stairs. Not only would they be able to understand speech, but they could also understand the speaker's mood. They would be able to identify individuals and human emotions through facial-image recognition software. However, 90-nm technology was not sufficient to achieve these technologies, and Mr. Yoshino believed that 22-nm-technology IC chips would be needed.

A decade later, cutting-edge IC technology has reached 22 nm. An all-new ASIMO was introduced in 2011 that can run, dance, and use sign language. Whereas the older version of ASIMO is an "automatic machine" that needs an operator, the new ASIMO is an "autonomous machine," which means it can make its own decisions and actions based on environmental sensors. It has the intelligence to walk among a group of people without collision by adjusting its movement through the observation and prediction of others. It has the capability to recognize the voices of multiple people, and its image sensor is capable of facial recognition. Although the new ASIMO has made a huge improvement, it is still far from having the envisioned emotion and mood recognition capabilities; to achieve that, perhaps sub-10-nm-technology IC chips are needed.

There have been many changes in the semiconductor industry and its manufacturing technologies over the last decade. Although Intel still keeps the bulk of its IC manufacturing technology in North American fabs, the center of IC manufacturing has shifted to East Asia, in nations such as Taiwan, North and South Korea, and China. The IC manufacturing fabs in Europe, Japan, and North America are declining at an alarming rate.

The biggest challenge for IC-technology node scaling has always been patterning technology. As suggested by my predictions in the first edition, unforeseen innovations such as immersion lithography and multiple patterning have extended the application of optical lithography and further delayed the development of next-generation lithography.

Many people helped me write this second edition. The book would not have been possible without the encouragement and support from my wife, Liu (Lucy) Huang. My elder son, Jarry Xiao, proofread several chapters. My current and former colleagues provided many useful suggestions; I would like to express my deepest appreciation to Paul MacDonald, Pierre Lefebvre, and Alan Liang.

Hong Xiao
October 2012

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