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Spie Press Book

CMOS/CCD Sensors and Camera Systems, Second Edition
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Book Description

The fully updated edition of this bestseller addresses CMOS/CCD differences, similarities, and applications, including architecture concepts and operation, such as full-frame, interline transfer, progressive scan, color filter arrays, rolling shutters, 3T, 4T, 5T, and 6T. The authors discuss novel designs, illustrate sampling theory and aliasing with numerous examples, and describe the advantages and limitations of small pixels.

This monograph provides the very latest information for specifying cameras using radiometric or photometric concepts to consider the entire system--from scene to observer. Numerous new references have also been added.


Book Details

Date Published: 29 April 2011
Pages: 408
ISBN: 9780819486530
Volume: PM208

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Solid state detectors 2
1.2 Imaging system applications 3
1.2.1 General imagery 6
1.2.2 Machine vision 7
1.2.3 Scientific applications 7
1.2.4 Military applications 8
1.3 Configurations 9
1.4 Image quality 12
1.5 Pixels, datels, disels, and resels 13
1.6 References 17
2. RADIOMETRY AND PHOTOMETRY 19
2.1 Radiative transfer 19
2.2 Planck's blackbody law 19
2.3 Photometry 23
2.3.1 Units 25
2.3.2 Typical illumination levels 27
2.4 Sources 28
2.4.1 Calibration sources 28
2.4.2 Real sources 29
2.5 Point sources and extended sources 32
2.6 Camera formula 33
2.7 Normalization 37
2.8 Normalization issues 40
2.9 References 44
3. CCD FUNDAMENTALS 45
3.1 Photodetection 46
3.1.1 Photogate 47
3.1.2 Photodiode 47
3.2 CCD array operation 47
3.3 CCD array architecture 56
3.3.1 Linear arrays 57
3.3.2 Full frame arrays 58
3.3.3 Frame transfer 59
3.3.4 Interline transfer 61
3.3.5 Progressive scan 66
3.3.6 Time delay and integration 68
3.3.7 Super CCD 72
3.4 Charge conversion (output structure) 74
3.5 Correlated double sampling 75
3.6 Overflow drain 76
3.7 Low light level devices 80
3.7.1 Electron bombarded CCD (EBCCD) 80
3.7.2 Electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) 81
3.7.3 Intensified CCDs 82
3.8 Charge injection device (CID) 85
3.9 Well capacity 87
3.10 References 88
4. CMOS FUNDAMENTALS 90
4.1 CCD and CMOS arrays: key differences 91
4.1.1 CCD array characteristics 91
4.1.2 CMOS array characteristics 93
4.2 CMOS arrays: prediction and reality 95
4.2.1 Smaller pixel potential limitations 96
4.2.2 Smaller pixel design evolution 97
4.3 Pixel electronics 99
4.3.1 3T pixel family 100
4.3.2 3T, 4T, 5T, and 6T pixel families 103
4.3.3 Rolling shutter vs. snapshot mode 106
4.4 CMOS architectures 108
4.5 CMOS future 110
4.6 References 117
5. ARRAY PARAMETERS 121
5.1 Number of detectors 121
5.1.1. Video formats 122
5.1.2. Scientific arrays 123
5.1.3. Digital still cameras 124
5.1.4. Image stabilization 124
5.2 Optical format 125
5.3 Dark pixels 126
5.4 Microlenses 129
5.5 Quantum efficiency 131
5.5.1. CCD, CMOS, and EMCCD 132
5.5.2. ICCD and EBCCD 141
5.6 Creating color 142
5.6.1. Color filter arrays 143
5.6.2. Vertically stacked detectors 150
5.6.2. 3CCD 154
5.7 Defects 154
5.8 References 155
6. SENSITIVITY 159
6.1. Responsivity 160
6.1.1. CCD, CMOS, and EMCCD 161
6.1.2. Super CCD 168
6.1.3. ICCD and EBCCD 169
6.2. Dark current 171
6.3. Maximum signal 174
6.4. Noise 175
6.4.1. Shot noise 178
6.4.2. Reset noise 179
6.4.3. On-chip amplifier noise 179
6.4.4. Off-chip amplifier noise 181
6.4.5. Quantization noise 181
6.4.6. Pattern noise 182
6.4.7. Super CCD noise 184
6.4.8. EMCCD noise 185
6.4.9. ICCD noise 187
6.9.10. "Camera noise" 188
6.5. Dynamic range 188
6.6. Photon transfer and mean-variance 193
6.7. Signal-to-noise ratio 197
6.7.1. CCD, CMOS, and Super CCD SNR 198
6.7.2. Incremental SNR 199
6.7.3. EMCCD SNR 199
6.7.4. ICCD SNR 201
6.8. Noise equivalent inputs 203
6.8.1. Noise equivalent input 203
6.8.2. Noise equivalent reflectance 204
6.9. Lux transfer 205
6.10. Speed - ISO rating 213
6.11. References 214
7. CAMERA DESIGN 217
7.1. Camera operation 218
7.2. Optical design 219
7.3. Analog-to-digital converters 219
7.4. Image processing 221
7.4.1. The knee 222
7.4.2. Aperture correction 222
7.4.3. Gamma correction 223
7.5. Video formats 226
7.5.1. "Conventional" video timing 227
7.5.2. Digital television 229
7.6. CRT overview 230
7.6.1. Monochrome displays 232
7.6.2. Color displays 232
7.7. Flat panel displays 234
7.8. Computer interface 236
7.9. References 236
8. LINEAR SYSTEM THEORY 238
8.1. Linear system theory 239
8.1.1. Time varying signals 239
8.1.2. Spatially varying signals 242
8.2. Electronic imaging system 243
8.3. MTF and PTF interpretation 244
8.4. Superposition applied to optical systems 246
9. SAMPLING 249
9.1. Sampling theorem 251
9.2. Aliasing 253
9.3. Image distortion 255
9.4. Array Nyquist frequency 257
9.5. CFA Nyquist frequency 259
9.5.1. Bayer CFA 260
9.5.2. WRGB CFAs 261
9.5.3. Super CCD FPA 261
9.5.4. Foveon 263
9.5.5. 2PFC 263
9.6. Reconstruction 264
9.7. Multiple samplers 268
9.8. References 269
10. MTF 272
10.1. Frequency domains 273
10.2. Optics 276
10.3. Detectors 279
10.3.1. Rectangular 280
10.3.2. Circular 282
10.3.3. L-shaped 283
10.3.4. Notched rectangle 283
10.4. Diffusion 285
10.4.1. Bulk diffusion 285
10.4.2. Surface lateral diffusion 286
10.4.3. Epitaxial layer diffusion 287
10.5. Optical crosstalk 290
10.6. "Color" MTF 290
10.6.1. Optical low pass filter 291
10.6.2. Bayer pattern 294
10.6.3. Measured MTF 295
10.7. Sampling "MTF" 296
10.8. Charge transfer efficiency 297
10.9. TDI 301
10.10. Motion 304
10.10.1. Linear motion 305
10.10.2. Random motion (jitter) 307
10.11. Digital filters 309
10.12. Reconstruction 314
10.12.1. Sample-and-hold 314
10.12.2. Post-reconstruction filter 315
10.13. Boost 317
10.14. CRT display 318
10.14.1. Spot size 318
10.14.2. Addressability 321
10.14.3. Character recognition 325
10.14.4. CRT MTF 328
10.15. Flat panel displays 329
10.16. Printer MTF 330
10.17. The observer 331
10.18. Intensified CCD 334
10.19. References 335
11. IMAGE QUALITY 339
11.1. Resolution metrics 341
11.2. Optical resolution 343
11.3. Detector resolution 344
11.4. Electrical resolution metric 345
11.5. MTF-based resolution 346
11.5.1. Limiting resolution 346
11.5.2. Optics-detector subsystem 347
11.5.3. Schade's equivalent resolution 350
11.6. Display Resolution 353
11.6.1. Disels 354
11.6.2. TV resolution 356
11.6.3. Flat panel displays 357
11.6.4. Printers 357
11.7. Spurious response 358
11.8. Observer-based resolution 364
11.8.1. MTFA 364
11.8.2. Subjective quality factor 365
11.8.3. Square-root integral 367
11.8.4. Targeting task performance 368
11.9. Viewing distance 369
11.10. Image reconstruction 373
11.11. References 375
12. RANGE PERFORMANCE 378
12.1. Atmospheric transmittance 378
12.2. Target contrast 380
12.3. Contrast transmittance 380
12.4. Range predictions 382
12.5. References 385
APPENDIX 386
f-number 386

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