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Spie Press Book

Principles of Lithography, Third Edition
Author(s): Harry J. Levinson
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Book Description

The publication of Principles of Lithography, Third Edition just five years after the previous edition is evidence of the quickly changing and exciting nature of lithography as applied to the production of integrated circuits and other micro- and nanoscale devices.

This text is intended to serve as an introduction to the science of microlithography, but also covers several subjects in depth, making it useful to the experienced lithographer as well.

Topics directly related to manufacturing tools are addressed, including overlay, the stages of exposure, tools, and light sources. This updated edition reflects recent advances in technology, including the shift of immersion lithography from development into volume manufacturing, and the movement of EUV lithography from the lab to development pilot lines. New references and homework problems are included. It is expected that the reader of this book will have a foundation in basic physics and chemistry. No topics will require knowledge of mathematics beyond elementary calculus.

Book Details

Date Published: 20 January 2011
Pages: 526
ISBN: 9780819483249
Volume: PM198

Table of Contents
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Preface to the Third Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Chapter 1 Overview of Lithography
Chapter 2 Optical Pattern Formation
2.1 The Problem of Imaging
2.2 Aerial Images
2.3 The Contributions of Physics and Chemistry
2.4 Focus
Chapter 3 Photoresists
3.1 Positive and Negative Resists
3.2 Adhesion Promotion
3.3 Resist Spin Coating, Softbake, and Hardbake
3.4 Photochemistry of Novolak/DNQ g- and i-line Resists
3.5 Acid-Catalyzed DUV Resists
3.6 Development and Post-Exposure Bakes
3.7 Operational Characterization
3.8 Line-Edge Roughness
3.9 Multilayer Resist Processes
Chapter 4 Modeling and Thin-Film Effects
4.1 Models of Optical Imaging
4.2 Aberrations
4.3 Modeling Photochemical Reactions
4.4 Thin-Film Optical Effects
4.5 Post-Exposure Bakes
4.6 Methods for Addressing the Problems of Reflective Substrates
4.7 Development
Chapter 5 Wafer Steppers
5.1 Overview
5.2 Light Sources
5.3 Illumination Systems
5.4 Reduction Lenses
5.5 Autofocus Systems
5.6 The Wafer Stage
5.7 Scanning
5.8 Dual-Stage Exposure Tools
5.9 Lithography Exposure Tools Before Steppers
Chapter 6 Overlay
6.1 Alignment Systems
     6.1.1 Classification of alignment systems
     6.1.2 Optical methods for alignment and wafer-to-reticle referencing
     6.1.3 Number of alignment marks
6.2 Overlay Models
6.3 Matching
6.4 Process-Dependent Overlay Effects
Chapter 7 Masks and Reticles
7.1 Overview
7.2 Mask Blanks
7.3 Mechanical Optical-Pattern Generators
7.4 Electron-Beam Lithography and Mask Writers
7.5 Optical Mask Writers
7.6 Resists for Mask Making
7.7 Etching
7.8 Pellicles
7.9 Mask-Defect Inspection and Repair
Chapter 8 Confronting the Diffraction Limit
8.1 Off-Axis Illumination
8.2 Optical Proximity Effects
8.3 The Mask-Error Factor
8.4 Phase-Shifting Masks
8.5 Putting It All Together
Chapter 9 Metrology
9.1 Linewidth Measurement
     9.1.1 Linewidth measurement using scanning electron microscopes
     9.1.2 Scatterometry
     9.1.3 Electrical linewidth measurement
9.2 Measurement of Overlay
Chapter 10 Immersion Lithography and the Limits of Optical Lithography
10.1 Immersion Lithography
10.2 The Diffraction Limit
10.3 Improvements in Optics
10.4 Maximum Numerical Aperture
10.5 The Shortest Wavelength
10.6 Improved Photoresists
10.7 Flatter Wafers
10.8 How Low Can k1 Go?
10.9 How Far Can Optical Lithography Be Extended?
10.10 Double Patterning
10.11 Interferometric Lithography
Chapter 11 Lithography Costs
11.1 Cost-of-Ownership
     11.1.1 Capital costs
     11.1.2 Consumables
     11.1.3 Mask costs
     11.1.4 Rework
     11.1.5 Metrology
     11.1.6 Maintenance costs
     11.1.7 Labor costs
     11.1.8 Facilities costs
11.2 Mix-and-Match Strategies
Chapter 12 Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
12.1 Background and Multilayer Reflectors
12.2 EUV Lithography System Overview
12.3 EUV Masks
12.4 Sources and Illuminators
12.5 EUV Optics
12.6 EUV Resists
Chapter 13 Alternative Lithography Techniques
13.1 Proximity X-ray Lithography
13.2 Electron-Beam Direct-Write Lithography
     13.2.1 Single-beam direct-write systems
     13.2.2 Multiple-electron-beam direct-write systems
     13.2.3 Cell-projection lithography
     13.2.4 Scattering-mask electron-projection lithography
13.3 Ion-Projection Lithography
13.4 Imprint Lithography
13.5 Directed Self-Assembly
13.6 The Ultimate Future of Lithography
Appendix A: Coherence
Color Plates Section

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