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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, Second Edition
Author(s): Arnold Daniels
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Book Description

This second edition is written to clarify and summarize the theoretical principles of infrared technology. It is intended as a reference for the practicing engineer and/or scientist who requires effective practical information to design, build, and/or test infrared equipment in a wide variety of applications.

This Field Guide combines numerous engineering disciplines necessary for the development of an infrared system. It describes the basic elements involving image formation and image quality, radiometry and flux transfer, and explains the figures of merit involving detector performance. It considers the development of search infrared systems, and specifies the main descriptors used to characterize thermal imaging systems. Furthermore, this guide clarifies, identifies, and evaluates the engineering tradeoffs in the design of an infrared system.

The new edition provides an up-to-date view of the various third-generation infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) technologies and infrared materials currently in use or being actively researched. It also includes an overview of a new target acquisition model known as "Targeting Task Performance (TTP) metric" developed by NVESD. The applicability of this range performance model extends to sampled imagers, digital image enhancement, and other features of modern imaging systems.


Book Details

Date Published: 9 December 2010
Pages: 192
ISBN: 9780819480804
Volume: FG15
Errata

Table of Contents
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Glossary of Symbols
Introduction
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Infrared Concepts
Optics
Imaging Concepts
Magnification Factors
Thick Lenses
Stops and Pupils
F-number and Numerical Aperture
Field of View
Combination of Lenses
Afocal Systems and Refractive Telescopes
Cold-Stop Efficiency and Field Stop
Image Quality
Image Anomalies in Infrared Systems
Infrared Materials
Ceramic and Amorphous Materials
GASIR Chalcogenide Glass Materials
Material Dispersion
Atmospheric Transmittance
Radiometry and Sources
Solid Angle
Radiometry
Radiometric Terms
Flux Transfer
Flux Transfer for Image-Forming Systems
Source Configurations
Blackbody Radiators
Planck's Radiation Law
Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien's Displacement Laws
Rayleigh-Jeans and Wien's Radiation Laws
Exitance Contrast
Emissivity
Kirchhoff's Law
Emissivity of Various Common Materials
Radiometric Measure of Temperature
Collimators
Performance Parameters for Optical Detectors
Infrared Detectors
Primary Sources of Detector Noise
Noise Power Spectral Density
White Noise
Shot Noise
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: Detector and BLIP Limits
Generation-Recombination Noise
1/f Noise and Temperature Noise
Detector Responsivity
Spectral Responsivity
Blackbody Responsivity
Noise-Equivalent Power
Specific or Normalized Detectivity
Photovoltaic Detectors or Photodiodes
Sources of Noise in PV Detectors
Expressions for DPV, BLIPD∗∗PV, BLIP and DPV, JOLI
Photoconductive Detectors
Sources of Noise in PC Detectors
Third-Generation Infrared Imagers
Indium Antimonite (InSb) Photodiodes
Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) Photodetectors
Control of the Alloy Composition
HgCdTe Photodiodes and FPAs
DLHJ Photodiodes
Dual-Band HgCdTe FPAs
HDVIP Photodiodes
Uncooled HgCdTe Photodiodes
Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs)
Types of QWIPs
Superlattices (SLs)
Multispectral QWIPs
Light Couplers
Pyroelectric Detectors
Pyroelectric Detectors—Mathematical Approach
Microbolometers
Microbolometers—Mathematical Approach
Infrared Dynamic Scene Simulators
Light Couplers
Thermoelectic Detectors
Infrared Systems
Raster Scan Format: Single-Detector
Multiple-Detector Scan Formats: Serial Scene Dissection
Staring Systems
Search Systems and Range Equation
Noise-Equivalent Irradiance
Performance Specification: Thermal-Imaging Systems
Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) Definitions
Optics MTF: Calculations
Electronics MTF: Calculations
MTF Measurement Setup and Sampling Effects
MTF Measurement Techniques: PSF and LSF
MTF Measurement Techniques: ESF and CTF
MTF Measurement Techniques: Noiselike Targets
MTF Measurement Techniques: Interferometry
Noise-Equivalent Temperature Difference (NEDT)
NETD Measurement Technique
Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD)
MRTD: Calculation
MRTD Measurement Technique
MRTD Measurement: Automatic Test
Johnson Metric Methodology
Johnson Criteria Flaws
Targeting Task Performance (TTP) Metric Methodology
Human Vision—Distribution of Retinal Photoreceptors
Contrast Threshold Function (CTF)
Target Acquisition Performance
Probability of Task Performance
N50 to V50 Conversion (Example)
Acquisition Level Definitions
TTP Summary
Equation Summary
Bibliography
Index

Preface

Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, Second Edition, is written to clarify and summarize the theoretical and practical principles of modern infrared technology. It is intended as a reference for the practicing engineer and/or scientist who requires effective practical information to design, build, and/or test infrared equipment in a wide variety of applications.

This book combines numerous engineering disciplines necessary for the development of an infrared system. It describes the basic elements involving image formation and image quality, radiometry and flux transfer, and explains the figures of merit for detector performance. It considers the development of search infrared systems, and specifies the main descriptors used to characterize thermal imaging systems. Furthermore, this guide clarifies, identifies, and evaluates the engineering tradeoffs in the design of an infrared system.

The 2nd edition provides the reader with an up-to-date view of the various third-generation infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) technologies currently in use or being actively researched. It also includes an overview of a new target acquisition model known as the "Targeting Task Performance (TTP) metric." The applicability of this range performance model extends to sample imagers, digital image enhancement, and other features of modern imaging systems. I would like to acknowledge and express my gratitude to my professor and mentor Dr. Glenn Boreman for his guidance, experience, and friendship. The knowledge that he passed on to me during my graduate studies at CREOL ultimately contributed to the creation of this book. I also would like to thank Dr. Boreman for reviewing a draft copy of the IRFPA 2nd edition manuscript.

I extend my sincere appreciation to Dr. Mel Friedman, NVESD, who took upon himself the onerous task of improving and clarifying the TTP metric concepts and its contents.

Above all, I voice a special note of gratitude to my kids Becky and Alex and my wife Rosa for their love and support.

Lastly, I would particularly like to thank you, the reader, for selecting this book and taking the time to explore the topics related to this motivating and exciting field. I trust that the contents of this book will prove interesting and useful to engineers and scientists working in one of the various infrared fields.

This Field Guide is dedicated to the memory of my father and brothers.

Arnold Daniels
October 2010


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