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Spie Press Book

Satellite Communications for the Nonspecialist
Author(s): Mark R. Chartrand
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Book Description

Based on Mark Chartrand's highly successful seminar series, this book is a comprehensive introduction to satellite communications covering a broad sweep of regulatory, standards, economics, business, operational, and technical subjects. The text is easily readable, highly entertaining, and truly geared for the nontechnical. Dr. Chartrand employs his unique ability gained over two decades of teaching to explain complex technical and satellite applications to professionals in marketing, finance, law, public relations, and journalism, as well as personnel in ancillary fields and members of the public who wish to better understand the satellite industry.<br< <br< "Dr. Mark Chartrand is THE single best educator, lecturer and satellite personality in the United States, if not the world.... This is a must-read book." <br<--David Bross, Via Satellite Magazine<br<Softcover version of PM128.

Book Details

Date Published: 8 April 2004
Pages: 456
ISBN: 9780819477750
Volume: PM128

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents


Part 1: Telecommunications and Satellites / 1
1. Introduction and Some Historical Background / 3
2. The Legal and Regulatory Environment of Telecommunications / 11
2.1 Telecommunications issues / 12
2.1.1 Resource allocation / 13
2.1.2 Money allocation / 14
2.1.3 The World Trade Organization / 16
2.1.4 Other users / 16
2.2 Telecommunication statistics / 17
2.2.1 What is fair? / 17
2.3 Standards and protocols / 19
2.4 The International Telecommunication Union / 20
2.4.1 ITU regions / 21
2.5 Other standards and regulatory organizations / 24
2.5.1 National regulations and standards / 25
2.5.2 Some regulatory jargon / 25
2.6 Satellite services and applications / 27
2.6.1 Satellite services / 28
2.6.1.1 Amsat / 29
2.6.2 The major commercial satellite services / 30
2.6.2.1 Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) / 31
2.6.2.2 Broadcast Satellite Service (BSS) / 31
2.6.2.3 Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) / 32
2.6.2.4 Radiodetermination Satellite System (RDSS) / 33
2.6.2.5 Radionavigation Satellite Service (RNSS) / 34
2.6.2.6 Inter-Satellite Service (ISS) / 34
2.7 Steps to licensing a satellite system / 34
3. Satellite Telecommunications: Users, Applications, and Markets / 37
3.1 Carrying capacity / 38
3.2 The place of satellites in telecommunications / 40
3.2.1 User criteria / 40
3.3 Global markets for various applications / 43
3.3.1 Television / 43
3.3.2 Audio broadcast / 44
3.3.3 Telephony / 45
3.3.4 Data / 46
3.4 Satellite services / 47
3.4.1 Broadcast video applications / 47
3.4.2 Audio applications / 48
3.4.3 Telephony applications / 49
3.4.4 Motion picture distribution to cinemas / 50
3.4.5 In-flight entertainment and information / 51
3.4.6 Telepresence / 52
3.4.7 Data distribution and exchange / 53
3.4.8 Point-of-sale applications / 53
3.4.9 Internet and multimedia via satellite / 54
3.4.10 Remote monitoring and control / 55
3.4.11 Navigation, surveying, and fleet management / 56
Part 2: Technical Background / 61
4. Basic Definitions and Measurements / 63
4.1 Communications and networks / 63
4.2 Some definitions / 66
4.2.1 Channels and circuits / 67
4.2.2 Direction of information flow / 67
4.2.3 Timeliness / 68
4.2.4 Use of transmission facilities / 68
4.2.5 Switching / 69
4.2.6 Network geometry / 70
4.3 Measurements: putting a number on it / 72
4.4 Decibels / 73
4.4.1 Ups and downs of power / 76
5. The Spectrum and Its Uses / 77
5.1 Properties of waves / 77
5.2 The speed of light / 78
5.3 Inverse square law of radiation / 79
5.4 Waves, wavelength, and frequency / 80
5.5 Radio frequency bands / 82
5.6 Frequency and bandwidth / 85
5.6.1 More frequency terminology / 86
5.6.2 Conversion and intermediate frequencies / 87
5.7 Other wave properties / 88
5.7.1 Polarization / 88
5.7.2 The Doppler Effect / 90
6. Analog and Digital Signals / 92
6.1 Analog signals / 92
6.2 Digital signals / 93
6.2.1 Doing our bit for telecommunications / 94
6.2.2 Bit players / 95
6.3 Bring in the noise / 95
6.4 Digital compression / 98
7. Carrying Information on Waves / 101
7.1 Carrying information / 101
7.1.1 Coding / 102
7.1.2 Pulse-code modulation / 104
7.1.3 Encoding video signals / 106
7.1.4 Coding for error control / 106
7.1.5 Forward error correction / 109
7.1.6 Coding for security / 110
7.2 Modulation / 111
7.2.1 Analog modulation / 113
7.2.2 Digital modulation / 114
7.2.2.1 Energy dispersal / 117
7.2.3 Modulation, forward error correction, and throughput / 117
7.2.4 Spread spectrum / 118
7.3 Multiplexing / 118
7.3.1 Space-division multiplexing / 120
7.3.2 Frequency-division multiplexing / 120
7.3.3 Time-division multiplexing / 122
7.3.4 On demand / 123
7.4 Networks and protocols / 124
7.4.1 Internet via satellite / 125
8. Signal Flow, Quality, and Noise / 127
8.1 Analog signal quality: signal-to-noise ratio / 127
8.2 Digital signal quality: bit error rate / 128
8.3 Quality during transmission: carrier-to-noise ratio / 128
8.4 Improving signal quality / 128
8.4.1 Companding analog signals / 129
8.4.2 Error correction for digital signals / 130
8.5 The communications circuit and the cocktail circuit / 130
8.6 Noise figure and noise temperature / 130
8.6.1 Intermodulation noise / 133
8.6.2 Satellite-to-satellite interference / 133
8.6.3 Terrestrial microwave interference / 134
8.7 The limit on capacity / 134
8.8 Digital and analog systems' response to noise / 135
Part 3: The Space Segment / 139
9. The Space Environment / 141
9.1 A matter of some gravity / 141
9.2 High vacuum / 142
9.3 Radiation in space / 144
9.3.1 Cosmic rays / 145
9.4 Meteor-oids, -ites, and -s / 146
9.5 Space debris / 147
10. Orbits / 150
10.1 Kepler's Laws / 150
10.2 Geosynchronous and geostationary orbits / 154
10.2.1 Inclined geosynchronous orbits / 157
10.3 Nongeostationary orbits / 157
10.3.1 Low orbits / 158
10.3.2 "Little" and "big" LEOs / 159
10.3.3 "Virtual GEO" orbits / 160
10.3.4 Molniya orbits / 160
10.4 Geosynchronous transfer orbit / 161
11. Orbital Slots, Frequencies, Footprints, and Coverage / 165
11.1 Satellite longitude and spacing / 165
11.1.1 Orbital spacing / 167
11.2 Once around the Clarke Orbit / 169
11.3 Satellite coverage / 170
11.3.1 Orbits and groundtracks / 172
11.4 Satellite orbits and the Sun / 172
11.4.1 Eclipses in the Clarke Orbit / 174
11.4.2 Eclipse protection / 176
11.4.3 NGSO eclipses / 177
11.4.4 Solar outages / 177
12. Out To Launch / 180
12.1 The launcher's job / 180
12.1.1 A fuel and its rocket are soon parted / 182
12.1.2Where the rubber meets the road to space / 182
12.1.3 How liquids move your assets / 183
12.1.4 Small thrusters / 184
12.2 The launch vehicle and launch program / 184
12.2.1 The launch campaign / 187
12.3 Launch vehicles / 188
12.4 Launch bases / 196
13. Satellite Systems and Construction / 201
13.1 Satellite manufacturers / 201
13.2 Major satellite subsystems / 202
13.2.1 Structural subsystem / 205
13.2.2 Antenna system / 209
13.2.3 Power generating, storage, and conditioning subsystem / 212
13.2.4 Stationkeeping and orientation subsystems / 213
13.2.5 Thermal control subsystem / 215
13.2.6 Telemetry and command subsystem / 216
13.3 Communications payload subsystem / 216
13.3.1 Transponder amplifiers / 218
13.3.2 Redundancy / 219
13.3.3 Transponder characteristics and uses / 219
13.3.4 "Bent-pipe" satellites / 223
13.3.5 Onboard processing satellites / 223
13.3.5.1 Onboard multiplexing / 224
13.3.5.2 Intersatellite links / 225
14. Satellite Operations: Housekeeping and Communications / 226
14.1 Satellite operations / 226
14.1.1 Tracking / 226
14.1.2 Telemetry / 227
14.1.3 Satellite control / 228
14.1.4 Satellite stationkeeping and orientation operations / 229
14.1.5 Orientation and pointing / 232
14.1.6 Relocation / 233
14.2 Satellite lifetime / 233
14.3 Communication operations / 235
Part 4: The Ground Segment / 237
15. Earth Stations: Types, Hardware, and Pointing / 239
15.1 Types of earthstations / 240
15.1.1 Single-purpose stations / 240
15.1.2 Gateway stations / 243
15.1.3 Teleports / 245
15.2 Environmental effects on antennas / 247
15.3 Antenna pointing / 248
15.4 Antenna mountings / 252
15.4.1 Elevation-azimuth mounts / 253
15.4.2 Equatorial mounts / 254
16. Earthstations: Antenna Properties / 256
16.1 Dish antennas / 256
16.1.1 Feed configuration / 258
16.2 Horn antennas / 260
16.3 Phased-array antennas / 260
16.4 Yagi antennas / 260
16.5 Multibeam antennas / 261
16.6 Nondirectional antennas / 261
16.7 Dish properties: directionality / 262
16.8 Dish properties: gain / 264
16.9 Limits on sidelobe gain / 265
17. Earthstations: Signal Flow, Electronics, EIRP, and G/T / 268
17.1 The length of the link / 268
17.2 Electronics / 270
17.2.1 HPAs / 270
17.2.2 LNA-B-C's / 271
17.2.3 Receivers / 273
17.3 Earthstation functions and signal flow / 274
17.3.1 Small receive-only earthstations / 274
17.3.2 Two-way earthstations / 275
17.3.3 Large earthstations / 275
17.4 Other signal processing / 278
17.4.1 The echo problem / 279
17.5 Dish + electronics / 280
17.5.1 EIRP / 280
17.5.1 Figure of merit / 282
17.6 Using satellite footprint maps / 283
Part 5: The Satellite - Earth Link / 287
18. Atmospheric Effects on Signals / 289
18.1 An optical analogy / 289
18.2 Elevation angle and path length / 290
18.3 Atmospheric effects / 291
18.3.1 Through a gas darkly / 292
18.3.2 Frequency dependence / 293
18.3.3 Rain fade and rain fade margins / 293
18.4 Global rain climate models / 294
18.4.1 The Crane model / 296
18.4.2 The ITU model / 297
18.5 Noise from the atmosphere / 300
18.6 Polarization effects / 300
18.6.1 Rain depolarization / 300
18.6.2 Ice depolarization / 301
18.6.3 Multipath depolarization / 301
18.7 Scintillation / 302
18.8 Scattering / 303
18.9 Improving the quality of a degraded satellite link / 303
19. Putting It All Together: Link Budgets / 305
19.1 The link budget / 306
19.1.1 Turning the formula around / 308
19.1.2 Digital signal quality / 310
19.2 What's fixed and what's changeable? / 310
20. Multiple Access: Many Users on One Satellite / 312
20.1 Compact system descriptions / 312
20.2 SDMA: space-division multiple access / 313
20.3 FDMA: frequency-division multiple access / 316
20.3.1 SPADE / 319
20.4 TDMA: time-division multiple access / 320
20.4.1 VSAT as an example of multiple access / 322
20.4.2 Aloha / 323
20.5 CDMA: code division multiple access / 324
20.6 PCMA: paired-carrier multiple access / 326
20.7 Demand assignment / 326
20.8 Multiplexing onboard satellite / 327
20.8.1 Multiple multiplexing / 328
20.9 Multiple access summary / 328
Part 6: Satellite Communications Systems / 331
21. Satellite Communications Providers and Competitors / 333
21.1 Satellite competitiveness / 333
21.2 Satellite's competitors / 336
21.2.1 Fiber optics / 336
21.2.2 Stratospheric platforms / 336
21.3 Satellite system economics / 337
21.3.1 Satellite networks and systems / 338
21.4 Categorizing satellite systems / 338
21.4.1 Treaty-based operators / 339
21.4.1.1 Arabsat / 340
21.4.1.2 Intersputnik / 340
21.4.2 National domestic and regional satellite systems / 341
21.4.3 Private satellite operators / 341
21.4.3.1 Eutelsat / 342
21.4.3.2 Inmarsat / 342
21.4.3.3 Intelsat / 343
21.4.3.4 Loral / 344
21.4.3.5 New Skies Satellite / 344
21.4.3.6 PanAmSat / 345
21.4.3.7 SES / 345
21.5 Using communications via satellite / 345
21.5.1 Obtaining space segment / 346
21.5.1.1 Transponder brokers / 347
21.5.2 Obtaining ground segment services / 349
21.5.3 Obtaining TT&C / 349
22. Issues, Trends and the Future / 351
22.1 Rapid changes in the telecommunications industry / 351
22.2 Some major telecommunications and satellite issues / 352
22.2.1 Spectrum availability / 352
22.2.2 Orbit availability / 353
22.2.3 Industrial issues / 353
22.2.4 Launcher and launchpad availability / 354
22.2.5 Financial capability availability and risk / 354
22.2.6 Multiple standards / 355
22.2.7 Multiple regulatory environments / 355
22.3 Satellite industry trends / 357
22.4 The future of communications via satellite / 358
Appendices
A. Glossary of Common Satellite Telecommunication Terms / 361
B. List of Common Acronyms / 387
C. Selected Bibliography for Additional Reading / 412
D. Periodicals and Newsletters / 414
E. Mathematical Background and Details / 416
E.1 Units and measurements / 416
E.2 Logarithms and decibels / 417
E.2.1 Decibels / 418
E.3 Bandwidth expressed in decibels / 419
E.4 The binary number system / 419
E.5 Noise temperature and noise figure / 420
E.6 Shannon's Law of channel capacity / 421
E.7 Kepler's Laws of orbits / 421
E.8 Orbital parameters / 421
E.9 Antenna properties / 422
E.9.1 Beamwidth / 422
E.9.2 Dish gain / 423
E.9.3 Antenna gain rule (sidelobe gain rule) / 423
E.10 Space loss / 424
E.11 Digital link budget / 424
E.12 Combining uplink and downlink C/N / 424

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