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Spie Press Book

Image Formation in Low-Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy
Author(s): Ludwig Reimer
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Book Description

While most textbooks about scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cover the high-voltage range from 5-50 keV, this volume considers the special problems in low-voltage SEM and summarizes the differences between LVSEM and conventional SEM. Chapters cover the influence of lens aberrations and design on electron-probe formation; the effect of elastic and inelastic scattering processes on electron diffusion and electron range; charging and radiation damage effects; the dependence of SE yield and the backscattering coefficient on electron energy, surface tilt, and material as well as the angular and energy distributions; and types of image contrast and the differences between LVSEM and conventional SEM modes due to the influence of electron-specimen interactions.

Book Details

Date Published: 1 February 1993
Pages: 160
ISBN: 9780819412065
Volume: TT12

Table of Contents
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Preface
List of Symbols and Acronyms
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 Electron-Specimen interactions
1.2 Electron Optical Instruments for Imaging and Analysis
1.2.1 Emission Electron Microscope (EEM)
1.2.2 Low-Energy Electron Microscope (LEEM)
1.2.3 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
1.2.4 X-Ray Microanalyzer (XRMA)
1.2.5 Auger Electron Microprobe (AEM)
1.2.6 Transmission Electron Microscope
1.2.7 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM)
1.2.8 Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)
1.2.9 Scanning Optical Microscopy (SOM)
1.3 Advantages of Low-Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy
Chapter 2. Electron Optics and Instrumentation
2.1 Electron Guns
2.1.1 Thermionic Guns
2.1.2 Schottky Emission Guns
2.1.3 Field-Emission Guns
2.2 Electron Lenses and Aberrations
2.2.1 Spherical Aberration
2.2.2 Chromatic Aberration
2.2.3 Axial Astigmatism
2.2.4 Diffraction Error
2.3 Electron-Probe Formation
2.4 Improvements in Electron Optics
2.5 Detector Systems
2.5.1 Everhart-Thornley Detector (ETD) for Secondary Electrons
2.5.2 Conversion of Backscattered Electrons to Secondary Electrons
2.5.3 Scintillation Detectors for Backscattered Electrons
2.5.4 Semiconductor Detectors
2.5.5 Microchannel-Plate Detector (MCP)
2.5.6 Detector Strategies
Chapter 3. Electron Scattering and Diffusion
3.1 Elastic Scattering
3.2 Inelastic Scattering
3.3 Stopping Power
3.4 Electron Range and Depth Distribution of Ionization
3.5 Simulation of Electron Diffusion
Chapter 4. Backscattered and Secondary-Electron Emission
4.1 Backscattering Coefficient
4.2 Angular and Energy Distribution of BSE
4.3 Secondary-Electron Yield
4.3.1 Models of SE Emission
4.3.2 Contribution of BSE to the SE Yield
4.3.3 Dependence of the SE Yield on Energy and Surface Tile
Chapter 5. Specimen Charging and Damage
5.1 Charging of Insulating Surfaces
5.2 Charging Artifacts
5.3 Methods for Measuring the Crossover Energy E2
5.4 Charging of Insulating Layers on Substrates
5.5 Specimen Heating
5.6 Damage of Inorganic Materials and Semiconductors
5.7 Damage of Organic Specimens
5.8 Contamination
5.9 Exposure of Resist for Electron-Beam Lithography
Chapter 6. Signal Formation and linage Contrast
6.1 Types of Image Contrast
6.2 Topographic Contrast
6.3 Metrology of Integrated Circuits
6.4 Material and Compositional Contrast
6.4.1 Backscattered Electrons
6.4.2 Secondary Electrons
6.5 Contrast of Thin Coatings
6.6 Crystal Orientation (Channeling) Contrast
6.7 Voltage Contrast and Measurement of Surface Potential
6.8 Capacitive-Coupling Voltage Contrast
6.9 Magnetic Contrast and Field Measurement
Chapter 7 Electron Spectroscopic Methods
7.1 Secondary- and Auger-Electron Spectroscopy
7.2 Scanning Electron Energy-Loss Microscopy
7.3 Threshold Spectroscopies
7.4 Low-Energy Electron Diffraction
7.5 Imaging of Magnetic Structures by Spin Polarization Analysis
Summary
Bibliography
Index |

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