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Spie Press Book

Diazonaphthoquinone-based Resists
Author(s): Ralph R. Dammel
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Book Description

This book elucidates the reasons underlying the lasting success of DNQ/N resist systems by examining the correlation between the chemical structure of the components and the photoresist performance. The basic chemistry of both DNQ sensitizers and novolak resins are explored. Focus also is placed on the chemical basis of application-related facets of the lithographic process. Methods of increasing process performance, such as image reversal, top layer imaging, antireflection layers, and phase shift technology are treated.

Book Details

Date Published: 15 February 1993
Pages: 216
ISBN: 9780819410191
Volume: TT11

Table of Contents
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Preface to the Series
Table of Contents
Preface
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1 References 8
Chapter 2. Basic Chemistry of DNQ/Novolak Resists 9
2.1 Chemistry of Diazonaphthoquinones (DNQs) 12
2.1.1 Chemical Structure of DNQs 12
2.1.2 Synthesis of DNQs 13
2.2 Photochemistry of DNQs 15
2.2.1 Absorption Characteristics 15
2.2.2 Photochemical Transformation of DNQ-5-sulfonates 19
2.2.3 Photochemical Transformations of DNQ-4-sulfonates 24
2.3 References 27
Chapter 3. Basic Chemistry of Novolaks 29
3.1 Novolak Synthesis 29
3.2 Influence of Novolak Structural Factors on Photoresist Performance 33
3.3 The Secondary Structure Model 41
3.4 Experimental Methods for Measuring Novolak Dissolution Rates 48
3.5 Phenomenological Description of Novolak Dissolution 51
3.6 Novolak Hyperacidity 58
3.7 Dissolution Channels, Critical Deprotonation and Percolation 61
3.8 Quantitative Application of Percolation Theory 62
3.9 References 67
Chapter 4. DNQ/Novolak Interactions 70
4.1 Dissolution Inhibitors as a Perturbation of the Percolation Field 70
4.2 Molecular Basis for DNQ/Novolak Interactions 73
4.3 Why DNQ is Not an Inhibitor 78
4.5 Multi-Step Model for Resist Inhibition/Dissolution 84
4.6 The Polyphotolysis Effect 85
4.7 Structure-Activity Relationships in PAC Backbones 90
4.8 References 96
Chapter 5. Step-by-step View of the Lithographic Process 97
5.1 Storage and Shelf Life of DNQ/Novolak Resists 97
5.2 Substrate Preparation 99
5.3 Spin Coating 103
5.4 Prebake 104
5.5 Exposure 106
5.6 Post-Exposure Bake 110
5.7 Development 112
5.8 Post-Development Bake 118
5.9 Dry Etching 121
5.10 Stripping 124
5.11 References 124
Chapter 6. Advanced Processing Schemes for DNQ Resists 126
6.1 Reasons for Using Advanced Processing Schemes 126
6.2 Dyed Resists: To Dye or Not To Dye 126
6.3 Antireflective Layers and Coatings 127
6.4 Top Antireflective Coatings (TARs) 131
6.5 Contrast Enhancement Layers (CEL) 134
6.6 Portable Conformable Mask (PCM) and Built-in Mask (BIM) Schemes 136
6.7 Image Reversal 140
6.8 Profile Modification Methods 145
6.9 Multi-Layer Techniques Involving Dry Etching 145
6.10 Top-Layer Imaging Using Dry Development 149
6.10.1 The DESIRE Process 150
6.10.2 The PRIME Process 153
6.10.3 The Top-CARL Process 154
6.10.4 SUPER Using Patternwise Esterification 156
6.10.5 Relative Importance of Top-Layer Imaging Schemes 157
6.11 Three-Dimensional Images in an� Acid-Hardening Resin 157
6.12 Relative Importance of Advanced Processing Schemes 158
6.13 References 160
Chapter 7. Outlook on DNQ/Novolak Systems 162
7.1 Resolution and Depth-of-Focus 162
7.2 DNQ-Resists in Phase Shift Technology 169
7.3 Annular and Quadrupole Illumination 175
7.4 DNQ-Resists in Deep UV Technology 179
7.5 DNQ-Systems as X-Ray and E-Beam Resists 181
7.6 DNQ-Resists for Laser Direct-Write Applications 184
7.7 Future of DNQ-Based Resists 185
7.8 References 187
Index 189 |

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