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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Geometrical Optics
Author(s): John E. Greivenkamp
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Book Description

This Field Guide derives from the treatment of geometrical optics that has evolved from both the undergraduate and graduate programs at the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona. The development is both rigorous and complete, and it features a consistent notation and sign convention.

This volume covers Gaussian imagery, paraxial optics, first-order optical system design, system examples, illumination, chromatic effects, and an introduction to aberrations. The appendices provide supplemental material on radiometry and photometry, the human eye, and several other topics.


Book Details

Date Published: 20 January 2004
Pages: 128
ISBN: 9780819452948
Volume: FG01
Errata

Table of Contents
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Glossary / ix
Fundamentals of Geometrical Optics / 1
Sign Conventions / 1
Basic Concepts / 2
Optical Path Length / 3
Refraction and Reflection / 4
Optical Spaces / 5
Gaussian Optics / 6
Refractive and Reflective Surfaces / 7
Newtonian Equations / 8
Gaussian Equations / 9
Longitudinal Magnification / 10
Nodal Points / 11
Object-Image Zones / 12
Gaussian Reduction / 13
Thick and Thin Lenses / 14
Object-Image Conjugates / 17
Afocal Systems / 18
Paraxial Optics / 19
Paraxial Raytrace / 21
YNU Raytrace Worksheet / 21
Cassegrain Objective Example / 22
Stops and Pupils / 24
Marginal and Chief Rays / 25
Pupil Locations / 26
Field of View / 27
Lagrange Invariant / 28
Numerical Aperture and F-Number / 29
Ray Bundles / 30
Vignetting / 31
Telecentricity / 33
Double Telecentricity / 34
Depth of Focus and Field / 35
Hyperfocal Distance and Scheimpflug Condition / 36
Optical Systems
Parity and Plane Mirrors / 37
Systems of Plane Mirrors / 38
Prism Systems / 39
Image Rotation and Erection Prisms / 41
Plane Parallel Plates / 42
Objectives / 43
Zoom Lenses / 44
Magnifiers / 45
Keplerian Telescope / 46
Galilean Telescope / 47
Field Lenses / 48
Eyepieces / 49
Relays / 50
Microscopes / 51
Microscope Terminology / 52
Viewfinders / 53
Single Lens Reflex and Triangulation / 54
Illumination Systems / 55
Diffuse Illumination / 56
Integrating Spheres and Bars / 57
Projection Condenser System / 58
Source Mirrors / 59
Overhead Projector / 60
Schlieren and Dark Field Systems / 61
Chromatic Effects
Dispersion / 62
Optical Glass / 63
Material Properties / 64
Dispersing Prisms / 65
Thin Prisms / 66
Thin Prism Dispersion and Achromatization / 67
Chromatic Aberration and Achromats / 68
Achromatic Doublet / 69
Monochromatic Aberrations
Monochromatic Aberrations / 70
Rays and Wavefronts / 71
Spot Diagrams / 72
Wavefront Expansion / 73
Tilt and Defocus / 74
Spherical Aberration / 75
Spherical Aberration and Defocus / 76
Coma / 77
Astigmatism / 78
Field Curvature / 79
Distortion / 80
Combinations of Aberrations / 81
Conics and Aspherics / 82
Mirror-Based Telescopes / 83
Appendices
Radiometry / 84
Radiative Transfer / 85
Photometry / 86
Sources / 87
Airy Disk / 88
Diffraction and Aberrations / 89
Eye / 90
Retina and Schematic Eyes / 91
Ophthalmic Terminology / 92
Film and Detector Formats / 94
Photographic Systems / 95
Scanners / 96
Rainbows and Blue Skies / 97
Matrix Methods / 98
Common Matrices / 99
Trigonometric Identities / 100
Equation Summary / 101
Bibliography / 107
Index / 110

Field Guide To Geometrical Optics

The material in this Field Guide To Geometrical Optics derives from the treatment of geometrical optics that has evolved as part of the academic programs at the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona. The development is both rigorous and complete, and it features a consistent notation and sign convention. This material is included in both our undergraduate and graduate programs.

This volume covers Gaussian imagery, paraxial optics, first-order optical system design, system examples, illumination, chromatic effects and an introduction to aberrations. The appendices provide supplemental material on radiometry and photometry, the human eye, and several other topics.

Special acknowledgement must be given to Roland V. Shack and Robert R. Shannon. They first taught me this material "several" years ago, and they have continued to teach me throughout my career as we have become colleagues and friends. I simply cannot thank either of them enough. I thank Jim Palmer, Jim Schwiegerling, Robert Fischer and Jose Sasian for their help with certain topics in this Guide. I especially thank Greg Williby and Dan Smith for their thorough review of the draft manuscript, even though it probably delayed the completion of their dissertations. Finally, I recognize all of the students who have sat through my lectures. Their desire to learn has fueled my enthusiasm for this material and has caused me to deepen my understanding of it.

This Field Guide is dedicated to my wife, Kay, and my children, Jake and Katie. They keep my life in focus (and mostly aberration free).

John E. Greivenkamp
Optical Sciences Center
The University of Arizona


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