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Spie Press Book

Progress in Photothermal and Photoacoustic Science and Technology, Volume IV: Semiconductors and Electronic Materials
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Book Description

This volume, the last in a four-volume series on Photothermal and Photoacoustic Science and Technology (PPST), presents a comprehensive review of the diverse progress made in PPST of semiconductors and electronic materials during the 1990s. As with other volumes in the series, this text is useful as a reference for practicing scientists and engineers and as a supplement to upper level graduate courses in various areas of PPST and its subfields.

Book Details

Date Published: 23 February 2000
Pages: 373
ISBN: 9780819435064
Volume: PM74

Table of Contents
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1 PHOTOTHERMAL AND PHOTOACOUSTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF POROUS SILICON STRUCTURES
G Amato, G Benedetto, L Boarino, G L�rondel, A M Rossi and R Spagnolo
1 Introduction 2
2 PS formation and morphology 2
3 PS optical properties and devices 4
4 PS thermal properties 8
5 Photoacoustic characterization of PS membranes for gas sensors 16
6 Conclusions 19
References 21
2 THE PECULIARITIES OF CONTRAST FORMATION IN PHOTOACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY OF SEMICONDUCTORS AND THE ROLE OF THE STRESSED STATE
R.M Burbelo
1 Introduction 25
2 Positional sensitivity of the piezotransducer 25
3 Acoustic properties of "sample-transducer" system 35
4 Influence of constant illumination on the photo-acoustic effect in
semiconductors 38
5 Stressed state and contrast formation of photo-acoustic images 42
6 Theory of thermoelastic effect in stressed substances 60
7 Conclusions 69
References 72
3 OPTICAL DETECTION OF PHOTOTHERMAL PHENOMENA IN OPERATING ELECTRONIC DEVICES: TEMPERATURE AND DEFECT IMAGING
A.M Mansanares
1 Introduction 76
2 Experimental arrangements: Overview of detection schemes 78
3 Temperature distribution of operating laser diodes 81
4 Temperature and electric field distributions in MOSFET structures 96
5 Joule microscopy in microelectronics interconnects 102
6 Conclusions and perspectives 104
References 107
4 PHOTOTHERMAL RADIOMETRIC STUDY OF IMPLANTED SEMICONDUCTORS
C Christofides, M Nestoros and A Othonos
1 Introduction 112
2 The photothermal radiometric setup 114
3 One layer photothermal radiometric theory 116
4 Experimental measurements on implanted and annealed silicon wafers 121
5 PTR two layer model for semiconducting thin films 135
6 Recent developments 142
7 Summary and future perspectives 142
References 144
5 NONRADIATIVE INVESTIGATION OF IMPURITY AND DEFECT LEVELS IN Si AND GaAs BY PIEZOELECTRIC PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY (PPAS)
T Ikari and A Fukuyama
1 Introduction 148
2 Theoretical models for the piezoelectric photoacoustic detection technique 150
3 Piezoelectric photoacoustic spectra of silicon (Si) 155
4 Piezoelectric photoacoustic spectra of gallium arsenide (GaAs) 164
5 Conclusions 174
References 175
6 EFFECT OF THE CONFINED PLASMA ON THERMAL WAVEFIELDS IN SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
S Kumar
1 Introduction 178
2 Thermal wave fields 180
3 Photopyroelectric technique 185
4 Experimental results 186
5 Conclusions 197
References 198
7 PHOTOTHERMAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SEMICONDUCTORS
B C Forget and D Fournier
1 Introduction 202
2 Fundamentals 203
3 Mirage detection 207
4 Photoinduced modulated reflection microscopy 213
5 Other detection schemes and techniques 221
6 Conclusion 223
References 225
8 NONLINEAR PHOTOACOUSTIC AND PHOTOTHERMAL PHENOMENA IN SEMICONDUCTORS
S Zhang and J Cheng
1 Introduction 231
2 Basic equations 232
3 Nonlinear photoacoustic effect of semiconductors in dc electric fields 233
4 Nonlinear modulated photoreflectance of semiconductors 244
5 Nonlinear PA and PT imaging of semiconductor devices 263
6 Conclusions 267
References 269
9 CARRIER TRANSPORT CONTRIBUTION TO THERMOELASTIC AND ELECTRONIC DEFORMATION IN SEMICONDUCTORS
D M Todorovi c and P M Nikoli c
1 Introduction 274
2 Plasma and thermal waves in semiconductors 277
3 Elastic waves in semiconductors 291
4 Photoacoustic investigation of transport properties in semiconductors 300
References 316
10 PHOTOTHERMAL SPECTROSCOPY OF CERAMIC AND NANO-CRYSTAL II IV COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS, TOGETHER WITH TERNARY AND MULTINARY COMPOUNDS
Taro Toyoda
1 Introduction 320
2 Ceramic compound semiconductors 322
3 II VI compound semiconductor nanocrystals 330
4 Ternary and multinary compound semiconductors 337
5 Conclusion 345
References 346

Preface to Volume IV

Semiconductors and Electronic Materials were beneficiaries of the emergence of Photoacoustic and Photothermal techniques as far back as the late seventies. In 1987 the first book entirely dedicated to this research area was published under the title "Photoacoustic and Thermal Wave Phenomena in Semiconductors" (A. Mandelis, Ed., North-Holland, New York). The ongoing popularity of the foregoing reference and the enormous advances made in semiconductor science and technology in the last decade, have led us to revisit this important discipline. We therefore dedicate Volume IV of this Series to the timely review of the diverse progress made in the 1990's in the field of Photoacoustic and Photothermal Science and Technology (PPST) of semiconductor materials and electronic devices.

It has been the tradition of this Series to open each new volume with a historical overview of the subject. For this volume, the sheer diversity of research disciplines constituting the PPST of Semiconductors and Electronic Materials made it quite difficult to proceed with a unified historical theme authored by a single researcher. Furthermore, it was felt that "Photoacoustic and Thermal Wave Phenomena in Semiconductors", as the predecessor to Volume IV, representing the state-of-knowledge at the end of the 1980's, de facto constitutes a historical reference for the present volume. Therefore, for this volume it was decided to give our authors the opportunity to construct comprehensive reviews of the leading research activities in several sub-fields of PPST applications to Semiconductors and Electronic Materials without the customary historical overview. A combination of novel analytical/experimental techniques to traditional semiconductor materials and devices, applications of conventional techniques to novel materials and devices, or both, constitute the essence of Volume IV.

On behalf of our International Advisory Board, we wish to thank all the contributors to this volume for their enthusiasm and perseverance in producing a high quality document. We also wish to thank the referees of the various chapters for their prompt response and full cooperation with the Editors. Special thanks are due to the SPIE for its continuing support of the PPST Series, to Eric Pepper, Director of Publications, and especially to Susan Price, Editor, for her invaluable help with correcting, editing and formatting the manuscript.

Finally, I wish to acknowledge the support of my family throughout the lengthy editorial process of this volume.

Andreas Mandelis
Editor-in-Chief
Toronto, October 1999


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