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Field Guides to Infrared Science and Technology: 2-Volume Set (Vols. FG39 and FG40)
Author(s): Arnold Daniels
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Book Description

This set of Field Guides distills the critical information on infrared principles, techniques, and systems for those working in or studying the various aspects of infrared science and technology.

The Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry covers all aspects of infrared optics, including monochromatic and chromatic optical aberrations as well as important concepts such as depth of focus, depth of field, hyperfocal distance, warm shields, aspheric surfaces, and kinoforms. It also provides a comprehensive introduction to the optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of infrared materials as well as the essentials of radiometry and sources necessary for the quantitative understanding of infrared signatures and flux transfer, spectral atmospheric transmittance, and path radiance. This Field Guide serves as a companion to the Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, Third Edition.

The third edition of the Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs is devoted to fundamental background issues for optical detection processes. It compares the characteristics of cooled and uncooled detectors with an emphasis on spectral and blackbody responsivity, detectivity, and the noise mechanisms related to optical detection. This Field Guide introduces the concepts of barrier infrared detector technologies and encompasses the capabilities and challenges of third-generation infrared focal plane arrays as well as the advantages of using dual-band technology. The book combines numerous engineering disciplines necessary for the development of an infrared system. It considers the development of search infrared systems and specifies the main descriptors used to characterize thermal imaging systems. Furthermore, this guide clarifies, identifies, and evaluates the engineering tradeoffs in the design of an infrared system. It serves as a companion to the Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry.


Book Details

Date Published: 3 October 2018
Pages: 314
ISBN: 9781510622524
Volume: FG900

Table of Contents
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Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry

Glossary of Symbols

Introduction
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Infrared Concepts

Optics
Imaging Concepts
Magnification Factors
Thick Lenses
Stops and Pupils
F-number and Numerical Aperture
Field of View
Depth of Focus and Depth of Field
Hyperfocal Distance
Combination of Lenses
Afocal Systems and Refractive Telescopes
Afocal Reflective Telescopes
Cold Stop Efficiency and Field Stop
The Warm Shield Concept
Image Quality
Understanding Optical Aberrations
Wavefront and Transverse Ray Aberrations
Wavefront and Seidel Aberrations
Spherical Aberration
Coma
Astigmatism and Field Curvature
Distortion
Diffraction of the Aberrated Wavefront
Aberration Tolerance
Strehl Ratio
Plane-Parallel Surfaces: Optical Windows
Chromatic Aberrations
Aspheres
Kinoforms
Image Anomalies in Infrared Systems

Infrared Materials
Optical Properties of Specular Light
Regions of Strong Absorption in Infrared Materials
Spectral Transmittance: Origin and Model
Effect of Temperature on Emittance
Birefringence
Material Dispersion
Optical Scatter
Mechanical Properties
Stress Concentration
Hardness
Fracture Toughness and Weibull Statistics
Safety Factor
Thermal Properties
Thermal Shock
IR Materials Properties at 300 K and Trade Names
Zinc Sulfide and Zinc Selenide
Tuftran®
Sapphire
AlON and Spinel
Birefringence
Material Dispersion
Optical Scatter
Yttria
Silicon and Germanium
Gallium Arsenide
CVD Diamond
Chalcogenide Glasses
Antireflection Coatings on High-Index Substrates
AR Surfaces Based on Nanostructure Arrays
Pressure Windows: Calculation
Mirrors

Radiometry and Sources
Solid Angle
Radiometry
Radiometric Terms
Flux Transfer
Flux Transfer for Image-Forming Systems
Source Configurations
Blackbody Radiators
Planck's Radiation Law
Stefan–Boltzmann's Law & Wien's Displacement Laws
Rayleigh–Jeans & Wien's Radiation Laws
Exitance contrast
Emissivity
Kirchhoff's Law
Emissivity of Various Common Materials
Radiometric Measure of Temperature
Collimators
Spectral Atmospheric Transmittance
Path Radiance

Equation Summary

Bibliography

Index


The amount of new material that was added to the second edition of the Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs (2010) was rather extensive. As a result, the third edition (2018) is accompanied by this "companion" publication, Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry.

These Field Guides cover a broad range of technical topics necessary to understand the principles of modern infrared technology. They combine numerous engineering disciplines that are essential for the development of infrared systems. The mathematical equations and physical concepts in these Field Guides are in sequence. Therefore, although these publications are sold separately, it is highly recommended that readers acquire the two books as a set.

The Field Guide to Infrared Optics, Materials, and Radiometry includes a detailed explanation of monochromatic and chromatic optical aberrations as well as a comprehensive introduction to the optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of infrared materials. It provides important concepts such as depth of focus, depth of field, hyperfocal distance, warm shields, aspheric surfaces, kinoforms, optical scatter, etc. It also includes an overview of the best and most common infrared glasses and mirror substrates. This Field Guide also covers the essentials of radiometry necessary for the quantitative understanding of infrared signatures and flux transfer, spectral atmospheric transmittance, and path radiance.

I would like to acknowledge and express my gratitude to my professor and mentor Dr. Glenn Boreman for his guidance, experience, and friendship. The knowledge that he passed on to me during my graduate studies at CREOL ultimately contributed to the creation of this book.

I extend my sincere appreciation to Dr. Mel Friedman, NVESD, who took on the onerous task of improving and clarifying the TTP metric concepts and its contents. I would also like to thank Mr. Thomas Haberfelde for his efforts in reviewing the drafts of the manuscripts as well as Alexander Daniels and Dara Burrows for their skillful editing assistance.

Above all, I voice a special note of gratitude to my kids Becky and Alex, and my wife Rosa for their love and support.

Lastly, I would particularly like to thank you, the reader, for selecting these books and taking the time to explore the topics related to this motivating and exciting field. I trust that the contents of these Field Guides will prove interesting and useful to engineers and scientists working in one of the various infrared fields.

These Field Guides are dedicated to the memory of my father and brothers.

Arnold Daniels
September 2018

Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, Third Edition

Glossary of Symbols

Introduction
History of Infrared Detectors and Systems
Detector IRFPA Roadmap

Performance Parameters for Optical Detectors
Infrared Detectors
Primary Sources of Detector Noise
Noise Power Spectral Density
White Noise
Noise-Equivalent Bandwidth
Shot Noise
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: Detector and BLIP Limits
Generation–Recombination Noise
Johnson Noise
1/f Noise and Temperature Noise
Detector Responsivity
Spectral Responsivity
Blackbody Responsivity
Noise-Equivalent Power
Specific or Normalized Detectivity (D*)
Photovoltaic Detectors or Photodiodes
Sources of Noise in PV Detectors
Expressions for D*PV,BLIP, D**PV,BLIP, and D*PV,JOLI
Photoconductive Detectors
Sources of Noise in PC Detectors

Infrared Semiconductor and Detector Technologies
Infrared Semiconductor Material Groups
Third-Generation Infrared Imagers: Requirements
Third-Generation Infrared Imagers: Challenges
Indium Antimonite (InSb) Photodiodes
InSb Dual-Band Integrated Dewar Cool Assembly
Concept of Barrier Infrared Photodetectors
MWIR nBn Photodetector
Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) Photodetectors
Control of the Alloy Composition
HgCdTe Photodiodes and FPAs
Double-Layer Heterojunction Photodiodes
Dual-Band HgCdTe FPAs
High-Density Vertically Integrated Photodiodes
Uncooled HgCdTe Photodiodes
Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
Types of QWIPs
Superlattices
Multispectral QWIPs
Light Couplers
Type II Strained-Layer Superlattices
Dual-Band IRFPA Technology: Advantages
3D Read-Out Integrated Circuits
Adaptive FPAs
Pyroelectric Detectors
Pyroelectric Detectors: Mathematical Approach
Microbolometers
Microbolometers: Mathematical Approach
Infrared Dynamic Scene Simulators
Thermoelectric Detectors
Carbon Nanotubes for Infrared Applications

Infrared Systems
Raster Scan Format: Single Detector
Multiple Detector Scan Formats: Serial Scene Dissection
Multiple Detector Scan Formats: Parallel Scene Dissection
Staring Systems
Search Systems and the Range Equation
Noise Equivalent Irradiance
Performance Specification: Thermal Imaging Systems
Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)
Optics MTF: Calculations
Detector MTF: Calculations
Parameter λ(F/#)/d
Motion MTF: Calculations
Atmospheric MTF: Calculations
MTF Measurement Setup and Sampling Effects
MTF Measuring Techniques: Point Spread Function and Line Spread Function
MTF Measuring Techniques: Edge Spread Function and Contrast Transfer Function
MTF Measuring Techniques: Noise-like Targets
MTF Measuring Techniques: Interferometry
Double-Layer Heterojunction Photodiodes
Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD)
NETD of Microbolometers
NETD Measurement Technique
Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD)
MRTD: Calculation
MRTD Measurement Technique
MRTD Measurement: Automatic Test
Johnson Metric Methodology
Johnson Criteria Flaws
Targeting Task Performance (TTP) Metric Methodology
Human Vision: Distribution of Retinal Photoreceptors
Human Vision: Response and Sensitivity
Contrast Threshold Function (CTF)
Target Acquisition Performance
Probability of Targeting Task Performance
N50 to V50 Conversion (Example)
Acquisition Level Definitions
TTP Summary

Equation Summary

Bibliography

Index


The Field Guide to Infrared Systems, Detectors, and FPAs, Third Edition is devoted to fundamental background issues for optical detection processes. It compares the characteristics of cooled and uncooled detectors with an emphasis on spectral and blackbody responsivity, and detectivity, as well as the noise mechanisms related to optical detection. This third edition introduces the concepts of barrier infrared detector technologies and encompasses the capabilities and challenges of third-generation infrared focal plane arrays as well as the advantages of using dualband technology.

With this acquired background, the last chapter considers the systems design aspects of infrared imagers. Figures of merit such as MTF, NETD, and MRTD of starring arrays are examined for the performance metrics of thermal sensitivity and spatial resolution of thermal imaging systems. The parameter λ(F/#)/d, motion MTF, and atmospheric MTF are included in this third edition. It also includes an overview of the targeting task performance (TTP) metric.

Arnold Daniels
September 2018


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