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Fiber Bragg Gratings: Theory, Fabrication, and Applications
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Book Description

This Tutorial Text delivers essential information concerning fiber Bragg gratings to professionals and researchers with an approach based on rules of thumb and practical aspects, enabling quick access to the main principles and techniques, and allowing readers to set up their own laboratory or application. It provides detailed information about how to operate and use these novel sensors, particularly with respect to the required infrastructure, daily operation, and possible applications. After a discussion of the primary concepts, practical aspects regarding the development of a FBG laboratory and how these components are manufactured and used in practical applications are presented. The following chapters outline the operation of Bragg gratings and, for instance, discuss how measurement information can be retrieved (interrogation techniques), calibration methods, and how to prepare and deploy the devices in real monitoring conditions. The final chapters present several successful, real-world applications of the technology.

Book Details

Date Published: 5 September 2017
Pages: 256
ISBN: 9781510613850
Volume: TT114

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction
1.1 Initial Concepts

2 History of FBG Device Development
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Historical Perspective
2.3 A Glimpse of Applications
2.4 Conclusions
References

3 Fiber Bragg Grating Theory and Models
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Fiber Bragg Grating Models
References

4 How to Set Up a Fiber Bragg Grating Laboratory
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Taking the First Step: The Laser
4.3 Cooling System
4.4 Nitrogen and Hydrogen
4.5 Optical Parts and Mounts
4.6 Instruments and Measurement Devices
4.7 Conclusions
References

5 Inscribing Fiber Bragg Gratings in Optical Fibers
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Inscribing Fiber Bragg Gratings with Phase Masks in Close Proximity to the Optical Fiber
     5.2.1 The +1/-1 configuration
     5.2.2 The 0/-1 configuration
5.3 Inscribing Fiber Bragg Gratings with Phase Masks and Mirrors
5.4 Conclusions
References

6 Interrogation Techniques of Fiber Bragg Gratings
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Basic Demodulation Scheme for Laboratories
6.3 Commercial Equipment for Fiber Bragg Grating Demodulation
6.4 Edge Filter Technique
6.5 Twin FBG Technique
6.6 Tunable Laser Approach
6.7 WDM Demodulation Scheme
References

7 Calibrating Fiber Bragg Gratings for Temperature and Strain
7.1 Introduction
7.2 First Steps
7.3 Temperature Calibration
7.4 Calibration in Strain
References

8 Encapsulation and Bonding
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Properties of Silica Optical Fibers
8.3 FBG Properties
8.4 FBG Protection and Encapsulation
8.5 Bonding
References

9 Compensation of Induced Thermal Effects
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Using an Additional Fiber Bragg Grating for Temperature Compensation
9.3 Applying Two Fiber Bragg Gratings in Opposite Conditions
9.4 Passive Compensation
9.5 Dynamic Temperature Compensation
References

10 Structural Health Monitoring with Fiber Bragg Gratings
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Hull Monitoring
10.3 FBGs in Railway Monitoring
10.4 Dam Monitoring
10.5 Dyke Monitoring
10.6 Monitoring Pipelines
10.7 FBGs in Bridge Monitoring
10.8 Monitoring the Condition of Rotating Machinery
References

11 Temperature Measurements
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Samuel Hydroelectric Power Plant
11.3 Installation of FBG Sensors to Measure Temperature in a Hydroelectric Generator
11.4 Temperature Monitoring Results
11.5 Local Recalibration of the FBG Temperature Sensors
11.6 Conclusion
References

12 Measurement of the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Materials
Leandro Alves Garção and Marceli Nunes Gonçalves
12.1 Introduction
12.2 FBG Bonding Procedure
12.3 Experimental Procedure
12.4 Experimental Results
12.5 Discussion
12.6 General CTE Measurement
12.7 Conclusion
References

13 Measuring Strain and Displacement
13.1 Introduction
13.2 The Spring Method
13.3 The Cantilever Method
13.4 Conclusion
References

14 Voltage Measurement
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Bragg Wavelength Displacement as a Function of Mechanical Strain
14.3 DC Measurements
     14.3.1 Electric setup
     14.3.2 Theoretical model of FBG displacement as a function of voltage application
14.4 Mechanical Setups for FBG-PZT DC Measurements
     14.4.1 FBG wound around a PZT tube
     14.4.2 FBG fixed laterally to the PZT tube
     14.4.3 Mechanical amplifier
     14.4.4 Tests with a PZT stack
     14.4.5 Conclusions of the DC experiments
14.5 AC Measurements
     14.5.1 Temperature compensation
     14.5.2 Maximum voltage
     14.5.3 Capacitive divider
     14.5.4 Theoretical model of the transducer sensitivity
     14.5.5 Results for the application of 13.8 kVrms
14.6 Conclusion
References

15 Current Measurements
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Optical Fibers in Current-Measurement Systems: A Preliminary Approach
15.3 Fiber Bragg Gratings in Current-Measurement Systems: The Use of Magnetostrictive Materials
15.4 Designing an Opto-magnetostrictive Current-Measurement Device
     15.4.1 The first approach concerning the opto-magnetostrictive current-measurement device
     15.4.2 An optimized opto-magnetostroctive current sensor
     15.4.3 Discussing the results
15.5 Conclusion
References

16 Gas Measurements
Bruno Cerqueira Rente Ribeiro
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Nanostructures in Gas-Measurement Systems
16.3 Fiber-Optic-Based Gas Measurement
16.4 Preparing Fiber Bragg Gratings for Gas Sensing
     16.4.1 Chemical etching
     16.4.2 Tapering
     16.4.3 D-shaped fiber
16.5 FBG Gas-Sensing Case Studies
16.6 Coated and Etched FBG Optical Effects in Fiber Sensors
16.7 Conclusion
References

Preface

The development of optical fibers has revolutionized not only telecommunications but also the way monitoring and sensing is conducted, particularly in remote or harsh environments. In this context, the discovery of photosensitivity in optical fibers led to the establishment of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), optical filters that have been widely employed in telecom and as measurement elements.

This Tutorial Text discusses these optical devices directly, focusing on the practical aspects and applications. It addresses the fundamental aspects of FBG operation to quickly introduce the subject to students, engineers, and laboratory technicians. Due to their inherent advantages in instrumentation, sensing, and automation systems, FBGs play an important role not only for industry professionals but also for academics. Thus, this book is primarily intended for scientists, professors, researchers, students, photonics technicians, and engineers involved in optical-fiber projects.

The chapters follow a logical sequence: after a discussion of the primary concepts, practical aspects regarding the development of a FBG laboratory and how these components are manufactured and used in practical applications are presented. The following chapters outline the operation of Bragg gratings and, for instance, discuss how measurement information can be retrieved (interrogation techniques), calibration methods, and how to prepare and deploy the devices in real monitoring conditions. The final chapters present several successful, real-world applications of the technology.

Fiber Bragg Gratings: Theory, Fabrication, and Applications delivers essential information concerning FBGs to professionals and researchers with an approach based on rules of thumb and practical aspects, enabling quick access to the main principles and techniques, and allowing readers to set up their own laboratory or application. It provides detailed information about how to operate and use these novel sensors, particularly with respect to the required infrastructure, daily operation, and possible applications. Dense physical aspects and the associated refined mathematical models are not thoroughly presented because this information can be found in other publications.

Many of the applications in this book reflect our own experience in courses, M.S. dissertations, D.S. theses, and projects at the Laboratório de Instrumentação e Fotônica (LIF) of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Therefore, we acknowledge our former and present students who made it possible to accomplish all of work that went into this book. We also acknowledge the contributions of the following D.S. students: Marceli Nunes Gonçalves and Leandro Alves Garção for writing Chapter 12, and Bruno Cerqueira Rente Ribeiro for writing Chapter 16.

Marcelo M. Werneck
Regina C. Allil
Fábio V. B. de Nazaré
August 2017


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