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Spie Press Book

Single Optical Imaging Elements
Author(s): Max J. Riedl
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Book Description

This Spotlight explores ways to address axial imaging limitations, i.e., spherical and chromatic aberrations. For the reduction of the additional, so-called primary aberrations, coma, astigmatism, field curvature, distortion, and chromatic aberration, more advanced methods have to be applied. In an extended field-covering system it is frequently necessary to balance the aberration contributions to avoid the predominance of one or more specific image spreads. Besides the most common lens with spherical surfaces, the benefits of an aspheric surface are discussed and demonstrated. Included in this coverage is the ball lens (total sphere) and the catadioptric Mangin mirror.

Book Details

Date Published: 16 March 2017
Pages: 35
ISBN: 9781510610835
Volume: SL26

Table of Contents
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1 Introduction

2 Snell's Law and the Refractive Lens
2.1 Law
2.2 Lens

3 Shortcomings of the Refractive Lens
3.1 Spherical aberration defined
3.2 Equations for a thin lens with an object located at infinity
     3.2.1 Blur spot
     3.2.2 Radii of a thin lens shaped for minimum spherical aberration
     3.2.3 Location of the minimum blur spot
3.3 Thin germanium lens
3.4 Comparison
3.5 Special case
3.6 Adding a suitable thickness
3.7 Aspherizing one surface
     3.7.1 Conic sections
3.8 Axial chromatic aberration
     3.8.1 Example

4 Diffraction Limit
4.1 Airy disk
     4.1.1 Spectral regions

5 Hybrids
5.1 Diffractive singlet
5.2 Achromat
     5.2.1 Chromatic dispersions
     5.2.2 Required relations
     5.2.3 Example
5.3 Athermats
     5.3.1 Layout
     5.3.2 Changing parameters
     5.3.3 Defocus with change of temperature
     5.3.4 Athermalizing with a hybrid
     5.3.5 Exercise

6 Mirrors
6.1 Conic sections for imaging mirrors
6.2 Spherical mirror
6.3 Mangin mirror

7 Ball Lens
7.1 Spherical aberration
     7.1.1 Caution

8 Object at a Finite Conjugate (Thin Lens)
8.1 Image formation
8.2 Best lens shape
8.3 Germanium lens example

9 Field Coverage and Aberrations
9.1 Coma
9.2 Astigmatism
9.3 Field curvature
9.4 Detailed analysis of a singlet
9.5 Aperture location
     9.5.1 Lateral color (lateral chromatic aberration)
     9.5.2 Distortion
     9.5.3 Example

References

Preface

This Spotlight explores ways to address axial imaging limitations, i.e., spherical and chromatic aberrations. In order to reduce the additional, so-called primary aberrations, coma, astigmatism, field curvature, distortion, and chromatic aberration, more advanced methods have to be applied. In an extended field-covering system, it is frequently necessary to balance the aberration contributions to avoid the predominance of one or more specific image spreads. In addition, the most common lenses with spherical surfaces, and the benefits of an aspheric surface are discussed and demonstrated. The ball lens (total sphere) and the catadioptric Mangin mirror are also covered.

Max J. Riedl
February 2017


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