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Spie Press Book

Optics Inspections and Tests: A Guide for Optics Inspectors and Designers
Author(s): Michael Hausner
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Book Description

Quality is a vital metric that can have a significant effect on customer satisfaction. Therefore, inspectors must have extensive knowledge about the applicable tools and techniques. This book presents the equipment used in the optics industry for manufacturing (grinding and polishing), processes (coatings and their durability), inspection, and testing of mechanical and optical parameters of optical elements. It also addresses topics such as optical materials, production methods, and the standards and specifications used to determine requirements in drawings and tests.

Book Details

Date Published: 12 January 2017
Pages: 520
ISBN: 9781510601796
Volume: PM269

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

I Theory and Materials

Introduction
1.1 Prologue
1.2 Defining Quality
1.3 Relating Quality with Optics Inspections and Testing
1.4 The Purpose of This Book

2 Optics
2.1 History and Development
2.2 The Nature of Light
2.3 Geometrical Optics
     2.3.1 Scattering
     2.3.2 Critical angle and total internal reflection
2.4 Physical Optics
2.5 Optical Aberrations
     2.5.1 Chromatic aberrations
     2.5.2 Monochromatic aberrations
     2.5.3 Correcting (reducing) optical aberrations
     2.5.4 Surface and material aberrations
     2.5.5 Optical system aberrations
2.6 Interference
2.7 Optical System Design
2.8 Types of Optical Components
References

3 Raw Materials for Producing Optical Elements
3.1 What Is an Optical Material?
3.2 Materials for Optical Elements
     3.2.1 Glass
          3.2.1.1 Optical glass
          3.2.1.2 Color optical filter
          3.2.1.3 Special glasses for molding
     3.2.2 Crystal
     3.2.3 Plastic
     3.2.4 Metals (for mirrors only)
     3.2.5 Special materials
3.3 Classification of Optical Materials
     3.3.1 According to molecular structure
     3.3.2 According to atomic orientation
     3.3.3 According to the working spectral range
     3.3.4 According to colors
     3.3.5 According to the refraction index (for glasses)
3.4 Main Characteristics of Optical Materials
     3.4.1 Optical properties
     3.4.2 Internal (bulk) quality
     3.4.3 Chemical properties
     3.4.4 Mechanical properties
     3.4.5 Electrical properties
References

4 Manufacturing Processes of Optical Materials
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Glass Manufacturing Process
4.3 Crystal
     4.3.1 Sapphire manufacturing methods
     4.3.2 Gradient solidification method
     4.3.3 Czochralski method
4.4 Chemical Vapor Deposition
     4.4.1 Types of CVD processes
     4.4.2 Basic steps of the CVD process
     4.4.3 CVD system
     4.4.4 Hot isostatic press
4.5 Plastic
     4.5.1 CR-39
     4.5.2 Related concepts
4.6 Aluminum
     4.6.1 Related concepts
References

5 Methods for Producing Optical Components
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Conventional Method: Spindle Grinding and Polishing
5.3 Diamond Turning
5.4 Precision Glass Molding and Precision Molded Optics
5.5 Additional Methods for Improving Optical Elements
     5.5.1 Magneto rheological finishing
     5.5.2 Hybrid molding
     5.5.3 Computer-numerical-control grinding and polishing method
     5.5.4 Freeform polishing method
     5.5.5 Ion beam figuring
5.6 Additional Shaping Methods and Those that Produce Specular Surfaces
References

6 Optical Coatings
6.1 Classification of Optical Coatings
6.2 Materials
6.3 AR Coating
6.4 Reflective Coatings
6.5 Optical-Coating-Deposition Technologies
     6.5.1 Evaporation (deposition) methods
     6.5.2 Sputter deposition methods
     6.5.3 Advanced plasma reactive sputtering (APRS)
6.6 Requirements
6.7 Typical Spectral Curves
References

7 Optical Adhesives
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Production Bond Failures
7.3 Incoming Failure Identification
References

8 Optics Standards and General Technical Specifications
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The Importance and Utility of Standards and Specifications
8.3 Defining a Standard
8.4 Defining a Specification
8.5 MIL-HDBK, MIL-STD, and Milspecs
8.6 International Organization for Standardization
8.7 ANSI, ASTM, and ASME
8.8 Deutsches Institut für Normung
8.9 General Standards for Technical Drawings

9 Metrology: Measurement Theory
9.1 Definition
9.2 Scientific or Fundamental Metrology
9.3 Applied, Technical, and Industrial Metrology
9.4 Legal Metrology
9.5 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
9.6 Rules of Thumb for Measurement Tools
References

II Methods and Tools

10 Testing and Examining Optical Components
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Overview of Production Requirement Documents
10.3 A Review of Quality Production and Inspection Records
     10.3.1 Process report
     10.3.2 Inspection report
     10.3.3 Raw material certificates (or certificate and meld data)
     10.3.4 Routing card
     10.3.5 COC, COT, and COA

11 Inspection and Testing of Raw Materials
11.1 Index of Refraction
11.2 Homogeneity
     11.2.1 Designation of required homogeneity in production files
     11.2.2 Homogeneity designation according to ISO 10110-4
11.3 Bubbles and Inclusions
11.4 Striae
     11.4.1 Designation of required striae in production files
11.5 Strain (Stress)
     11.5.1 Designation of required stress birefringence in production files
11.6 Transmission/transmittance
11.7 Resistivity of Silicon or Germanium
References

12 Inspection and Testing of Components
12.1 Radius of a Spherical Surface
12.2 Sag (Sagitta)
12.3 Centration
12.4 Dial Gauges and Indicators
12.5 Roundness (Circularity)
12.6 Central Thickness of a Lens
12.7 Thickness and Parallelism of Windows
12.8 Length between Ground Surfaces
12.9 Concentricity
12.10 Perpendicularity
12.11 Chamfer
12.12 Inside Edges
12.13 Surface Texture
12.14 Angularity

13 Inspection and Testing of Surface Shape and Figure
13.1 Test Plate
13.2 Analyzing the Interference Pattern Revealed by the Test Plate
13.3 Example Surface Patterns of Flat and Spherical Surfaces
13.4 Principles of Manual Analysis of Interferograms
13.5 Analyzing the Interference of Simple Patterns
13.6 Analyzing the Interference of Various Patterns
13.7 Important Considerations when Analyzing Interference
13.8 Interferometric Measurements for Flat and Spherical Surfaces
13.9 Testing Cylindrical Surfaces
References

14 Coatings
14.1 Optical Properties
14.2 Environmental Durability
14.3 Visual Inspections
14.4 Witness Samples
14.5 Durability of Coatings with Primers and Silicon Removers
References

15 Special Properties of Aspheric Surfaces, Diffractive Surfaces, and Sapphire
15.1 Aspheric Surfaces
     15.1.1 Profile plots
     15.1.2 Contact profilometer method by OptiPro
     15.1.3 Noncontact 3D method
     15.1.4 Roughness
     15.1.5 Slope error
15.2 Diffractive Surfaces
     15.2.1 Measuring and testing diffractive surfaces
15.3 Sapphire
References

III Inspection and Quality Assurance

16 Acceptance Sampling (Standards and Methods)
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Terms and Definitions
16.3 How to Determine if 100% Inspection is Necessary
16.4 Sampling Plan Procedure
16.5 Types of Decisions
16.6 Main Statistical Inspection Sample Table References
16.7 Summary
References

17 Location and Process of the Inspection/Test
17.1 Location
17.2 Basic Needs
17.3 Process

18 Visual Inspection
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Definitions
     18.2.1 Visual inspection
     18.2.2 Beauty defects
     18.2.3 Cosmetic defects
18.3 Requirements for Good Visual Inspections
18.4 Kinds of Defects
18.5 Visual Inspection Methods
18.6 Main Defects in Optical Elements
18.7 Illustrations of Visible Defects in Optical Elements
18.8 Measuring and Calculating Visual Defects
     18.8.1 Scratches and digs
     18.8.2 Defects according to military specifications
     18.8.3 Defects according to ISO standards
     18.8.4 Edge chips according to military specifications
     18.8.5 Glass defects, bubbles, and inclusions according to military specifications and standards
     18.8.6 Stains
     18.8.7 Cement defects
     18.8.8 Drawing C7641866: surface quality standards for optical elements
     18.8.9 Common sense and consideration
References

19 Handling Optical Components
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Cleaning and Handling
     19.2.1 Cleaning solvents (solutions)
     19.2.2 Supplemental materials and accessories
     19.2.3 Cleaning and handling procedure
     19.2.4 Cleaning and handling assembled optical elements
     19.2.5 Cleaning and handling procedure for outer optical elements during maintenance
19.3 Guidelines for Cleaning or Handling Optical Elements
19.4 Packaging, Storage, and Shipping
     19.4.1 Packaging
     19.4.2 Storage
     19.4.3 Shipping
19.5 Health and Safety Aspects
19.6 Environmental and Additional Health and Safety Aspects
19.7 First Contact Cleaning Technology
References

20 Testing of Optical Systems
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Main Optical System Parameters
     20.2.1 Resolving power (or resolution)
     20.2.2 Modulation transfer function
     20.2.3 Boresight
     20.2.4 Noise equivalent temperature difference
     20.2.5 Minimum resolvable temperature difference
     20.2.6 Minimum resolvable contrast
     20.2.7 Blur circle (blur spot)
20.3 Additional Required Tests of Optical Systems
References

21 Handling Nonconforming Optical Elements
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Procedure
21.3 MRB Decisions
21.4 Other Considerations

22 Quality Assurance
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Terms and Definitions
22.3 Quality Management Theories
     22.3.1 Deming's theory
     22.3.2 Crosby's theory
     22.3.3 Juran's theory
     22.3.4 Ishikawa's theory
     22.3.5 Feigenbaum's theory
     22.3.6 Shewhart's theory
     22.3.7 Garvin's theory
22.4 Product Manufacturing Steps
22.5 Quality Management Standards
22.6 Quality Audits
22.7 Lean Manufacturing
     22.7.1 The seven wastes
22.8 Quality Costs
22.9 Controlling Manufacturing Processes
22.10 Communication with Suppliers and Customers
22.11 Manufacturer Qualifying Process
22.12 First Article Inspection
22.13 Professionalism and Organizational Conduct
References

23 Summary

Preface

This book is the culmination of the knowledge I have acquired during my work in the optics industry over 30 years. During that time, I have collected a vast amount of information dealing with the inspection of optical elements, as well as other related topics, such as optical materials, production methods, and standards and specifications used to determine requirements in drawings and tests.

Because the demand for more-complicated optical elements is growing, the need for adequate quality is growing, as well, which means that both the manufacturer's and the customer's optics inspectors must be well aware of the requirements stated in relevant drawings and specifications. Furthermore, they need to be well trained with the methods and tools used for tests and inspections. Knowledge of basic optics, raw materials used in the production of optical components, methods of manufacturing optical elements and coatings, sampling methods, and quality assurance theories is an essential part of inspector professionalism.

An optics inspector must also complete inspection reports, conduct failure investigations by request, and fulfill the requirements of other organizational procedures. Good professional relations with the inspectors of customers or suppliers help promote workflow and serve the organization's needs. This book serves as a tool for optics quality inspectors at the beginning and at a more advanced stage of their work. It also serves optical designers and anyone else who is interested in optics inspection and related issues.

Michael Hausner
November 2016


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