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Spie Press Book

New Horizons in Nanoscience and Engineering
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Book Description

Nanomaterials and nanoscale interactions span an important and wide-ranging sector of modern science and industry. Championing developments in these fields, SPIE stages an annual forum to stimulate and support their growth: the Nanoscience and Engineering Symposium. This book represents a selection of compelling contributions from some of those innovators closely involved since the launch of this symposium. Among the key advances included are accomplishments with nanowaveguides, silicon photonics, solar energy conversion, lighting, nanofabrication and structure-determining methods for polymeric, organic, inorganic and composite materials, as well as biomaterials that can frequently achieve first-class response characteristics and that are of low-cost, and are readily available and environmentally responsible. Together, these contributions give a fascinating portrayal of the state of the art in the shifting landscape of current nanoscience and engineering.


Book Details

Date Published: 31 July 2015
Pages: 472
ISBN: 9781628417951
Volume: PM257

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

Preface
List of Contributors
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

1. Increasing the Density and Functionality of Photonic Integration with Nanowaveguides and Nanostructures
Sailing He, Tuo Chen, Li Jiang, Qiangsheng Huang, and Jiao Lin
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Plasmonic Waveguides for Increasing Density and Functionality
     1.2.1 Structure of a hybrid plasmonic waveguide
     1.2.2 Coupling length and bending loss of the plasmonic waveguide
     1.2.3 Mode confinement on plasmonic waveguides
1.3 Multifunctional Sensing Chip: an Integrated Refractive Index Sensing with Molecule Identification Ability
     1.3.1 Improving the figure of merit of a LSPR-based sensor
     1.3.2 Dual-resonance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)
1.4 Microfluidic SPR Array Sensor
     1.4.1 Components of an SPRA
     1.4.2 Materials of an SPRA
     1.4.3 Fabrication of an SPRA
     1.4.4 Specific designs
     1.4.5 Applications
1.5 Photonic Devices with Graphene-based Nanostructrues
     1.5.1 Graphene as a tunable optical material
     1.5.2 Broadband terahertz absorber
     1.5.3 Circular polarization beamsplitter
1.6 Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References

2. Silicon Microresonators: How to Give a New Twist to Silicon Photonics
Massimo Borghi, Davide Gandolfi, Mher Ghulinyan, Romain Guider, Mattia Mancinelli, Georg Pucker, Fernando Ramiro-Manzano, Fabio Turri, and Lorenzo Pavesi
2.1 Introduction
     2.1.1 Brief introduction to microresonator physics
2.2 Interferometric Switching in Reconfigurable Optical Devices
     2.2.1 Interferometric add–drop filter
     2.2.2 The interferometric band interleaver
     2.2.3 Influence of the resonator number
     2.2.4 Influence of fabrication defects
2.3 Chaos in a Sequence of Microresonators
     2.3.1 Device geometry and linear spectral response of the SCISSOR
     2.3.2 Chaotic response of the SCISSOR
     2.3.3 Tuning the onset of chaos with the device structure
     2.3.4 Generation of random bits
2.4 Vertical Coupling to Enable New Physics with Silicon Microresonators
     2.4.1 Fabrication process description
     2.4.2 Fully integrated wedge resonators
     2.4.3 Thermo-optical bistability in a vertically coupled Si-nanocrystal doped resonator
     2.4.4 The physics of the vertical evanescent coupling
2.5 Silicon Microresonators for Biosensing
     2.5.1 Integrated lab-on-chip
     2.5.2 Performance enhancement
2.6 Applications: Optomechanics with Silicon Microresonators
     2.6.1 Optical gradient forces
     2.6.2 Free-standing vertically coupled microrings
2.7 Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References

3. Two-Photon 3D Microfabrication of Organic, Inorganic, and Hybrid Materials
Prem Prabhakaran, Ran Hee Kim, and Kwang-Sup Lee
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Fundamentals of Two-Photon Absorption
3.3 TPA Organic Materials
     3.3.1 Introduction
     3.3.2 Centrosymmetric two-photon-absorption materials
3.4 Two-Photon-Induced 3D Microfabrication
     3.4.1 Two-photon polymerization (TPP) for 3D microfabrication
     3.4.2 Evaluation of a voxel by TPP
     3.4.3 Advanced methods in precise 3D microfabrication by TPP
     3.4.4 Microstructures incorporating inorganic materials
3.5 Functional Microstructures Fabricated by TPP
     3.5.1 Micromixers
     3.5.2 Fabrication of atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips
     3.5.3 Photonic crystals
3.6 Conclusions
References

4. Noncovalent Interactions in Polymer Nanocomposites
A. Douglas Winter, Eduardo Larios, Cherno Jaye, Conan Weiland, Edward L. Principe, Mária Omastová, Daniel A. Fischer, and Eva M. Campo
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Thermoactive Behavior of EVA-MWCNT Composites
4.3 Aging Effects in EVA-MWCNT Composites
4.4 Interactions and Alignment in Electrospun PDMS-PMMA-MWCNT Composites
4.5 Quantifying Interactions: Linear Combination Analysis
4.6 Hyperspectral Imaging in NEXAFS: Improving Spatial Resolution
4.7 Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References

COLOR PLATES

5. Molecular Engineering for Solar Energy Conversion and Lighting Materials
Filippo Monti and Nicola Armaroli
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Supramolecular Systems for Artificial Photosynthesis
     5.2.1 Artificial photosynthesis: basic concepts
     5.2.2 Ruthenium(II) complexes with π-extended ligands for solar energy harvesting
     5.2.3 Fullerenes as electron acceptors for photo-induced charge separation
     5.2.4 A photosynthetic multicomponent system with an antenna and a charge separation module
     5.2.5 Beyond fullerene: cyanobuta-1,3-dienes as unconventional electron acceptors
5.3 Ionic Transition-Metal Complexes for Light-Emitting Devices
     5.3.1 Flat solid state lighting devices: OLEDs and LECs
     5.3.2 Ionic luminescent Ir(III) complexes
     5.3.3 Ionic luminescent Cu(I) complexes
5.4 Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References

6. The Material Genome for Organic Electro-optics and Silicon/Plasmonic–Organic Hybrid Technology
Philip A. Sullivan and Larry R. Dalton
6.1 Broader Perspective
6.2 Introduction to Multiscale Modeling
     6.2.1 Quantum theory and calculation of molecular electronic, optical, and nonlinear properties
     6.2.2 Statistical mechanical treatment of macromolecular materials intermolecular electrostatic interactions
6.3 Laser-Assisted Poling
6.4 The Problem of Material Conductance
6.5 Experimental Methods
6.6 Lattice Hardening and Material Stability
6.7 Devices, Systems, and Applications
6.8 Conclusions and Prognosis
Acknowledgments
References

7. Bio-based Nanomaterials for Photonic Applications
Fahima Ouchen, Emily M. Heckman, Carrie M. Bartsch, Roberto S. Aga, Jr., Jack P. Lombardi III, Saima Husaini, Robert G. Bedford, Emily M. Fehrman Cory, Perry P. Yaney, Ileana Rău, François Kajzar, and James G. Grote
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Solid State Lighting Using a DNA–Phosphor Blend
     7.2.1 Introduction
     7.2.2 Experimental details
     7.2.3 Results
     7.2.4 Conclusions
7.3 Application of DNA Biopolymers in Printed Photodetectors
     7.3.1 Introduction
     7.3.2 Experimental details
     7.3.3 Results
     7.3.4 Conclusions
7.4 Nonlinear Optical Effects of a Biocompatible Graphene–DNA Nanomaterial
     7.4.1 Introduction
     7.4.2 Experimental details
     7.4.3 Results
     7.4.4 Conclusions
7.5 Modified Biopolymer Cladding Materials for Increased Electro-optic Poling Efficiency
     7.5.1 Introduction
     7.5.2 Experimental details
     7.5.3 Results
     7.5.4 Conclusions
7.6 Additional Properties and Characteristics of Biopolymers
     7.6.1 Introduction
     7.6.2 Experimental results and discussion
     7.6.3 Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References

8. Bio-based Nanomaterials for Electronic Applications
Fahima Ouchen, Donna M. Joyce, Adrienne D. Williams, Steve S. Kim, Rajesh R. Naik, Guru Subramanyam, Carrie M. Bartsch, Emily M. Heckman, Roberto S. Aga, Jr., Perry P. Yaney, and James G. Grote
8.1 Introduction
8.2 DNA and DNA-based Dielectrics
     8.2.1 Introduction
     8.2.2 Experimental details
     8.2.3 Results
8.3 Graphene Field-Effect Transistors
     8.3.1 Introduction
     8.3.2 Transferred graphene: electrical properties under ambient conditions and lifetime-degradation studies
     8.3.3 Conclusions
8.4 Probing the Interaction of Peptides with Graphene
     8.4.1 Introduction
     8.4.2 Experimental procedures
     8.4.3 Results
     8.4.4 Conclusions
8.5 BaTiO3-Doped DNA Biopolymers
     8.5.1 Introduction
     8.5.2 Experimental
     8.5.3 Results
     8.5.4 Conclusions
8.6 Measurement of the Charge Carrier Mobility of DNA-CTMA Using the Pulsed-Laser, Time-of-Flight Technique
     8.6.1 Introduction
     8.6.2 The Raman spectra of ultrasonically processed DNA
     8.6.3 Alignment of DNA (unsonicated)-CTMA molecules
Acknowledgments
References

9. Organic Materials—Silk Fibroin Synergies: A Chemical Point of View
Manuela Melucci and Roberto Zamboni
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Silk Fibroin—Functional Organic Material Synergies
     9.2.1 SF/fOM multilayer devices
     9.2.2 fOM-doped SF
     9.2.3 SF-fOM composites
9.3 fOM Chemically Modified SF
     9.3.1 Bombyx mori postproduction SF chemical modification approaches
     9.3.2 Silkworm diet modification approaches
9.4 Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References

Index

Preface

The world of nanomaterials and the study of nanoscale interactions span a hugely important and wide-ranging sector of modern science and industry. It is easy to forget how rapidly their prominence has grown since the turn of this century, when nanoscience and nanotechnology were still essentially in their infancy. At that time, the propagation of some fantastically inflated speculation—and considerable scaremongering in some quarters—had become sufficiently rife that anything with a 'nano' prefix was in danger of being regarded either as pure hype, or as something associated with irresponsibly high risk. Yet those most closely involved saw the true potential, recognizing the need for safeguards and for investment to support advances that could hold genuinely transformative potential.

As key decision makers in increasing numbers became persuaded of the solidity and promise of the subject, the next few years saw a spate of Institute of Nanoscience foundations, such as those in Pittsburgh in 2002, NRL (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory) in 2003, Delft in 2004, and both Iowa City and Basel in 2006. At around the same time, the increasing number of presentations on 'nano' topics began to draw the attention of conference organizers and managers, leading to new streams of conference material. With customary vision, SPIE led the forefront of developments with an aim to provide a central forum for such topics and to stimulate and support their growth. Starting with a workshop on nanomaterials in 2002, the structuring of conferences at its annual summer meeting (most often in San Diego) was purposefully focused and extended into a cohesive stream of content that emerged into its now familiar form, the Nanoscience and Engineering Symposium.

It is a pleasure and honor to have been involved in this symposium since the outset, alongside my friend and colleague Jim Grote. It has been our great delight to witness the growth in size and reputation of the symposium and to find so many internationally eminent individuals—more than sixty since the inception in 2002—prepared to come and deliver plenary lectures. The present monograph represents a careful selection of chapters from some of those most closely involved; their contributions aim to bring the reader up to date with the numerous advances that continue to shape and reshape the subject. In this International Year of Light, it is particularly appropriate that a large number of these advances relate to optical materials, interactions, or measurements. Indeed, the prominence of light-related topics in the whole sphere of nanoscience research and development befits the positioning of the Nanoscience and Engineering Symposium within SPIE's Optics and Photonics event. Yet, the subject matter extends well beyond the boundaries of nanophotonics and nano-optics, and its true interdisciplinarity will be more than evident in the pages that follow.

In Chapter 1, He et al. describe how advanced methods of nanofabrication now enable the construction of nanowaveguides whose performance can be enhanced by harnessing plasmonic interactions, or, for example, by the incorporation of graphene elements. Such devices provide a basis for a variety of emerging applications in polarizers, optical communications, high-sensitivity, real-time biosensing, and light harvesting. Pavesi et al., in Chapter 2, also discuss engineered nanostructures, here with a focus on silicon photonics. This is a growth area in its own right, since silicon offers scope to reduce the massive power demands of major communications routers such as those engaged in Internet search engines. Although the prospect of a relative ease of integration with existing semiconductor fabrication methods is attractive, true integration is limited by the complexity of integrated photonic circuits. This chapter shows how some of the outstanding problems can be circumvented or mitigated. Silicon microresonators have significant applications in biosensing and in optomechanics.

Chapter 3 by Lee et al. concerns an important area of application for nonlinear optics, in which two-photon-induced polymerization or allied lithography methods are deployed in the 3D microfabrication of polymeric, organic, and inorganic materials. The full capability of such an approach can be gauged by its capacity to create complex regular structures such as photonic crystals, using a photoresist incorporating a dye with a large two-photon- absorption cross section. The same technique can be adapted for the nanofabrication of atomic force microscopy tips, or components in microfluidic motors. Campo et al., in Chapter 4, then describe the use of structure-determining methods such as near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) or Raman spectroscopy to achieve a better understanding of the noncovalent interactions that determine the bulk physical properties of many novel polymeric composites. Here, particular interest is in composites incorporating carbon nanotubes, which can lead to dramatic improvements in mechanical, thermal, electrical, and optical properties. Such composites hold promise for commercial applications that include textiles, fuselage constructs, and haptic screens.

In Chapter 5, Monti and Armaroli discuss the principles of molecular engineering for solar energy conversion and new materials for lighting—areas linked by a common dependence on electron- and energy-transfer pathways, typically involving molecular complexes and fullerenes as well as transitionmetal ions. With the global drive toward lower energy consumption and a reduced dependence on fossil fuels, these materials are helping to address the continuing need to develop higher efficiency and better quality lighting. Chapter 6, by Sullivan and Dalton, then takes a comprehensive look at theory-guided principles for the design of organic electro-optical materials and silicon/plasmonic–organic hybrids. Recent advances in this area provide the means to engineer for improved control of material viscoelasticity, reductions in optical loss, and increases in both thermal and photochemical stability.

The subject of the subsequent three chapters is biomaterials and biopolymers. This is another area of significant recent development, in which the often astonishingly propitious physical properties of natural biological materials are exploited in new products. Chapter 7 by Grote et al. deals with photonic applications, and Chapter 8, also by Grote et al., covers electronic applications, showing that many of the most promising new materials are formed as films or composites from DNA biopolymers. Such polymers have optical properties that are often comparable in performance or, in many cases, superior to traditional polymers. Moreover, they prove to be especially robust against UV or gamma radiation and are therefore materials potentially suitable for future space-based applications. Yet another class of biomaterials discussed by Melucci and Zamboni in the concluding Chapter 9 are those based on silk fibroin, sustainably fabricated by reverse engineering from silkworm cocoons. Here, composites with functional organic compounds provide the basis for a wide range of tailored materials with exciting new properties, suited for the manufacture of multifunctional bioactive devices.

I commend this book to its readers as an indication of the breadth and scale of recent advances in nanoscience. And in conclusion, I offer sincere thanks to all contributors for delivering manuscripts of such high quality, comprehensively covering such a wide a range of topics, and to the invariably helpful and professional staff of SPIE's publishing division, who have strongly supported this project from the start and have brought it to a timely fruition.

David L. Andrews
Norwich, U.K.
July 2015


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