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Spie Press Book

Selected Papers on Resolution Enhancement Techniques in Optical Lithography
Editor(s): F. M. Schellenberg
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Book Description

Optical lithography for integrated circuits is undergoing a renaissance with the adoption of resolution enhancement techniques (RET). Some RET concepts have become routine in manufacturing, almost two decades after the original applications were conceived. This volume gathers together seminal RET papers. Since many of the first applications were announced by Japanese authors well before the material was presented in English, some of the original Japanese papers are included plus their English translations.

Book Details

Date Published: 11 March 2004
Pages: 896
ISBN: 9781628413656
Volume: MS178
Errata

Table of Contents
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xv Preface
F.M. Schellenberg
Section One
Resolution and Lithography
1 Section Introduction
3 On the diffraction of an object-glass with circular aperture George Biddell Airy (Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 1835)
12 Contributions to the theory of the microscope and the nature of microscopic vision [in German] E. Abbe (Archive for Microscopic Anatomy 1873)
18 English translation of previous paper (Translated by H.E. Fripp, 1874, and edited/revised by W. Maurer and F.M. Schellenberg)
25 Investigations in optics, with special reference to the spectroscope, Sections 1-6 Lord Rayleigh (The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science 1879)
43 Investigations in optics, with special reference to the spectroscope, Section 7 Lord Rayleigh (The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science 1880)
51 On the theory of optical images, with special reference to the microscope Lord Rayleigh (The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science 1896)
66 On the diffraction theory of microscopic vision Albert B. Porter (The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science 1906)
73 On spectroscopic resolving power C.M. Sparrow (The Astrophysical Journal 1916)
79 The concept of degree of coherence and its application to optical problems F. Zernike (Physica 1938)
85 The influence of the condenser on microscopic resolution H.H. Hopkins, P.M. Barham (The Proceedings of the Physical Society Section B 1950)
93 The concept of partial coherence in optics H.H. Hopkins (Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A 1951)
108 On the diffraction theory of optical images H.H. Hopkins (Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A 1953)
133 Two-point resolution with partially coherent light Diana Nyyssonen Grimes, Brian J. Thompson (Journal of the Optical Society of America 1967)
138 Image of a periodic complex object in an optical system under partially coherent illumination Y. Ichioka, T. Suzuki (Journal of the Optical Society of America 1976)
150 Partially coherent imaging in two dimensions and the theoretical limits of projection printing in microfabrication Burn Jeng Lin (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1980)
158 Where is the lost resolution? Burn J. Lin (in Optical Microlithography V, H.L. Stover, editor, 1986)
165 Identifying and monitoring effects of lens aberrations in projection printing Kenny K.H. Toh, Andrew R. Neureuther (in Optical Microlithography VI, H.L. Stover, editor, 1987)
Section Two
Moore�s Law
173 Section Introduction
175 Cramming more components onto integrated circuits Gordon E. Moore (Electronics 1965)
179 Progress in digital integrated electronics Gordon E. Moore (International Electron Devices Meeting 1975 Technical Digest)
182 Lithography and the future of Moore�s Law Gordon E. Moore (in Optical/Laser Microlithography VIII, T.A. Brunner, editor, 1995)
198 National lithography roadmap: wafer requirements in the year 2000 Karen Brown (in 14th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, W.L. Brodsky, G.V. Shelden, editors, 1994)
Section Three
Optical Process/Proximity Correction (OPC)
205 Section Introduction
207 Techniques of microphotography: precision photography at extreme reductions (Eastman Kodak Industrial Data Book 1963)
215 Reduction of errors of microphotographic reproductions by optimal corrections of original masks Bahaa E.A. Saleh, Soheil I. Sayegh (Optical Engineering 1981)
219 Image construction through diffraction-limited high-contrast imaging systems: an iterative approach Karen M. Nashold, Bahaa E.A. Saleh (Journal of the Optical Society of America A 1985)
228 Image construction: optimum amplitude and phase masks in photolithography Bahaa E.A. Saleh, Karen M. Nashold (Applied Optics 1985)
234 Proximity effects and influences of nonuniform illumination in projection lithography P.D. Robertson, F.W. Wise, A.N. Nasr, A.R. Neureuther, C.H. Ting (in Optical Microlithography: Technology for the Mid-1980s, H.L. Stover, editor, 1982)
241 A study of projected optical images for typical IC mask patterns illuminated by partially coherent light Albert C. Liu, Burn Jeng Lin (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1983)
254 A critical examination of submicron optical lithography using simulated projection images Alan E. Rosenbluth, Douglas Goodman, B.J. Lin (Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 1983)
260 Proximity effects in submicron lithography Paul Chien, Mung Chen (in Optical Microlithography VI, H.L. Stover, editor, 1987)
266 Photo-projection image distortion correction for a 1-um pattern process [in Japanese] Tetsuo Ito, Masaya Tanuma, Yasuo Morooka, Kazuya Kadota (Transactions of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers [IEICE] 1985)
274 Photo-projection image distortion correction for a 1-um pattern process [an English translation of the previous paper] Tetsuo Ito, Masaya Tanuma, Yasuo Morooka, Kazuya Kadota (Electronics and Communications in Japan Part II: Electronics 1986)
283 Use of a single size square serif for variable print bias compensation in microlithography: method, design, and practice Alexander Starikov (in Optical/Laser Microlithography II, B.J. Lin, editor, 1989)
296 Lithographic process having improved image quality Burn J. Lin, Anne M. Moruzzi, Alan E. Rosenbluth (U.S. Patent No. 4,902,899; filed June 1, 1987, issued February 20, 1990)
307 Variable proximity corrections for submicron optical lithographic masks Y. Nissan-Cohen, P. Frank, E.W. Balch, B. Thompson, K. Polasko, D.M. Brown (1987 Symposium on VLSI Technology, Digest of Technical Papers)
309 A method for correction of proximity effect in optical projection lithography Nader Shamma, Frederik Sporon-Fiedler, Edward Lin (Proceedings of the KTI Microlithography Seminar Interface �91)
321 Mask for photolithography Jang F. Chen, James A. Matthews (U.S. Patent No. 5,242,770; filed January 16, 1992, issued September 7, 1993)
333 Fast proximity correction with zone sampling John P. Stirniman, Michael L. Rieger (in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T.A. Brunner, editor, 1994)
Section Four
Phase-Shifting Masks (PSM)
341 Section Introduction
343 Process for the production of a phase mask with amplitude structure [in German] Hartmut H�nsel, Wulf Polack (German Democratic Republic Patent No. 126,361; filed April 30, 1976, issued July 13, 1977)
349 English translation of previous patent (Translated by Interlingua, edited by F. M. Schellenberg and H. H�nsel)
352 Some partially coherent images Douglas Goodman (Optical Sciences Center Newsletter 1978)
355 Spatial period division exposing Dale C. Flanders, Henry I. Smith (U.S. Patent No. 4,360,586; filed April 14, 1980, issued November 23, 1982)
369 Projection master for use with transmitted illumination [in Japanese] Masato Shibuya (Japanese Patent Publication Sho 57-62052; filed September 30, 1980, published April 14, 1982)
373 English translation of previous patent (Translated by Interlingua, edited by F. M. Schellenberg)
377 Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask Marc D. Levenson, N.S. Viswanathan, Robert A. Simpson (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1982)
386 The phase-shifting mask II: imaging simulations and submicrometer resist exposures Marc D. Levenson, Douglas S. Goodman, Scott Lindsey, Paul W. Bayer, Hugo A.E. Santini (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1984)
397 Optical imaging with phase shift masks Mark D. Prouty, Andrew R. Neureuther (in Optical Microlithography III: Technology for the Next Decade, H.L. Stover, editor, 1984)
402 Photomask [in Japanese] Tsuneo Terasawa, Toshiei Kurosaki, Yoshio Kawamura, Shigeo Moriyama (Japanese Patent Publication Sho 61-292643; filed June 21, 1985, published December 23, 1986)
405 English translation of previous patent (Translated by Interlingua, edited by F. M. Schellenberg)
408 Photomask [in Japanese] Tsuneo Terasawa, Shigeo Moriyama, Toshiei Kurosaki, Yoshio Kawamura (Japanese Patent Publication Sho 62-67514; filed September 20, 1985, published March 27, 1987)
411 English translation of previous patent (Translated by Japanese Technical Translators, edited by F. M. Schellenberg)
414 Photomask [in Japanese] Toshiei Kurosaki, Tsuneo Terasawa, Yoshio Kawamura, Shigeo Moriyama (Japanese Patent Publication Sho 62-189468; filed February 17, 1986, published August 19, 1987)
417 English translation of previous patent (Translated by Interlingua, edited by F.M. Schellenberg)
420 Element forming method [in Japanese] Hiroshi Fukuda, Tsuneo Terasawa, Norio Hasegawa, Toshihiko Tanaka, Taku Ushima (Japanese Patent Publication Hei 1-283925; filed May 11, 1988, published November 15, 1989)
426 English translation of previous patent (Translated by F. M. Schellenberg)
432 Sub-�m lithography using the phase shift method (1) [in Japanese] Tsuneo Terasawa, Toshiei Kurosaki, Norio Hasegawa (The 49th Applied Physics Society Scientific Conference, Conference Abstracts 1988)
432 English translation of previous paper (Translated by F. M. Schellenberg)
433 Sub-�m lithography using the phase shift method (2) [in Japanese] N. Hasegawa, T. Terasawa, T. Yamamoto, T. Tanaka, T. Kurosaki (The 49th Applied Physics Society Scientific Conference, Conference Abstracts 1988)
433 English translation of previous paper (Translated by F. M. Schellenberg)
434 Use of a pi-phase shifting x-ray mask to increase the intensity slope at feature edges Y.-C. Ku, Erik H. Anderson, Mark L. Schattenburg, Henry I. Smith (Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 1988)
438 Lithography mask with a p?phase shifting attenuator Henry I. Smith, Erik H. Anderson, Mark L. Schattenburg (U.S. Patent No. 4,890,309; filed February 25, 1987, issued December 26, 1989)
450 Imaging characteristics of multi-phase-shifting and halftone phase-shifting masks Tsuneo Terasawa, Norio Hasegawa, Hiroshi Fukuda, Souichi Katagiri (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1991)
457 New phase shifting mask with self-aligned phase shifters for a quarter micron photolithography Akihiro Nitayama, Takashi Sato, Kohji Hashimoto, Fumiaki Shigemitsu, Makoto Nakase (International Electron Devices Meeting 1989 Technical Digest)
461 Chromeless phase-shifted masks: a new approach to phase-shifting masks Kenny K.H. Toh, Giang Dao, Rajeev Singh, Henry Gaw (in 10th Annual Symposium on Microlithography, J.N. Wiley, editor, 1990)
488 Fabrication of grooved glass substrates by phase mask lithography Phillip J. Brock, Marc D. Levenson, James M. Zavislan, James R. Lyerla, John C. Cheng, Carl V. Podlogar (in Optical/Laser Microlithography IV, V. Pol, editor, 1991)
502 0.2 um or less i-line lithography by phase-shifting-mask technology Hideyuki Jinbo, Yoshio Yamashita (International Electron Devices Meeting 1990 Technical Digest)
506 Improvement of phase-shifter edge line mask method Hideyuki Jinbo, Yoshio Yamashita (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1991)
512 Transparent phase shifting mask with multistage phase shifter and comb-shaped shifter Hisashi Watanabe, Yoshihiro Todokoro, Yoshihiko Hirai, Morio Inoue (in Optical/Laser Microlithography IV, V. Pol, editor, 1991)
522 Adoption of phase shift at 64M is unavoidable. For 0.3�m lithography, a combination with I-line is the final decision [in Japanese] Kazuyoshi Takayama (Nikkei Microdevices 1990)
527 English translation of previous paper (Translated by F. M. Schellenberg)
533 Adoption of phase shift at 64M is unavoidable. Different reticle structures are clarified by calculation and experiment [in Japanese] Hiroshi Fukuda, Norio Hasegawa, Akira Imai, Shinji Okazaki (Nikkei Microdevices 1990)
540 English translation of previous paper (Translated by F. M. Schellenberg)
547 Conjugate twin-shifter for the new phase shift method to high resolution lithography H. Ohtsuka, K. Abe, T. Onodera, K. Kuwahara, T. Taguchi (in Optical/Laser Microlithography IV, V. Pol, editor, 1991)
559 Optimization of real phase mask performance Franklin Schellenberg, Marc D. Levenson, P.J. Brock (in 11th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology, K.C. McGinnis, editor, 1992)
Section Five
Off-Axis Illumination (OAI)
583 Section Introduction
585 Images of periodic objects under partially coherent illumination A.K. Jaiswal, R.K. Bhogra (Optica Acta 1973)
603 A concept for a high resolution optical lithographic system for producing one-half micron linewidths George O. Reynolds (in Optical Microlithography V, H.L. Stover, editor, 1986)
614 Optimum stepper performance through image manipulation Chris A. Mack (Proceedings of the KTI Microelectronics Seminar Interface '89)
621 Illuminator modification of an optical aligner Delmer L. Fehrs, Howard B. Lovering, Robert T. Scruton (Proceedings of the KTI Microelectronics Seminar Interface '89)
635 Improving projection lithography image illumination by using sources far from the optical axis Satoru Asai, Isamu Hanyu, Kohki Hikosaka (Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 1991)
639 Subhalf micron lithography system with phase-shifting effect Miyoko Noguchi, Masato Muraki, Yuuichi Iwasaki, Akiyoshi Suzuki (in Optical/Laser Microlithography V, J.D. Cuthbert, editor, 1992)
652 New imaging technique for 64M-DRAM Naomasa Shiraishi, Shigeru Hirukawa, Yuichiro Takeuchi, Nobutaka Magome (in Optical/Laser Microlithography V, J.D. Cuthbert, editor, 1992)
664 The effective light source optimization with the modified beam for the depth-of-focus enhancements Tohru Ogawa, Masaya Uematsu, Toshiyuki Ishimaru, Mitsunori Kimura, Toshiro Tsumori (in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T.A. Brunner, editor, 1994)
676 High performance optical lithography using a separated light source Satoru Asai, Isamu Hanyu, Kohki Hikosaka (Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 1992)
680 New effects of modified illumination in optical lithography Satoru Asai, Isamu Hanyu, Masahiko Takikawa (IEEE Electron Device Letters 1993)
683 Photolithography system using a combination of modified illumination and phase shift mask Kazuya Kamon, Teruo Miyamoto, Yasuhito Myoi, Hitoshi Nagata, Norihiko Kotani, Masaaki Tanaka (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1992)
689 Investigation of single sideband optical lithography using oblique incidence illumination Emi Tamechika, Seitaro Matsuo, Kazuhiko Komatsu, Yoshinobu Takeuchi, Yoshiaki Mimura, Katsuhiro Harada (Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 1992)
694 Resolution improvement using auxiliary pattern groups in oblique illumination lithography Emi Tamechika, Toshiyuki Horiuchi, Katsuhiro Harada (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1993)
701 Mask assisted off-axis illumination technique for random logic J. Garofalo, C.J. Biddick, R.L. Kostelak, S. Vaidya (Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 1993)
709 Rim phase-shift mask combined with off-axis illumination: a path to 0.5^/numerical aperture geometries Timothy A. Brunner (Optical Engineering 1993)
716 Wavefront engineering for photolithography Marc D. Levenson (Physics Today 1993)
Section Six
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
725 Section Introduction
727 Computer aided proximity effect correction system in photolithography Yoshihiko Hirai, Noboru Nomura, Akio Misaka, Shigeru Hayama, Kazuhiro Yamashita, Kenji Harafuji (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1989)
731 Investigating phase-shifting mask layout issues using a CAD toolkit Alexander S. Wong, David M. Newmark, J. Brett Rolfson, Randy J. Whiting, Andrew R. Neureuther (International Electron Devices Meeting 1991 Technical Digest)
735 Phase-shifting mask design tool David M. Newmark, Andrew R. Neureuther (in 11th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology, K.C. McGinnis, editor, 1992)
745 Algorithm for phase-shift mask design with priority on shifter placement Akemi Moniwa, Tsuneo Terasawa, Norio Hasegawa, Shinji Okazaki (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1993)
751 Heuristic method for phase-conflict minimization in automatic phase-shift mask design Akemi Moniwa, Tsuneo Terasawa, Kyoji Nakajo, Junya Sakemi, Shinji Okazaki (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1995)
757 Computer aided design software for designing phase-shifting masks Kazuko Ooi, Shigehiro Hara, Kiyomi Koyama (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1993)
762 Method of designing phase-shifting masks utilizing a compactor Kazuko Ooi, Kiyomi Koyama, Masakazu Kiryu (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1994)
767 Application of alternating-type phase shift mask to polysilicon level for random logic circuits Gerald Galan, Frederic Lalanne, Patrick Schiavone, Jean-Marc Temerson (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1994)
773 Automated determination of CAD layout failures through focus: experiment and simulation Chris Spence, John Nistler, Eytan Barouch, Uwe Hollerbach, Steve Orszag (in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T.A. Brunner, editor, 1994)
785 Automatic generation of phase shift mask layouts T. Waas, H. Eisenmann, H. Hartmann, W. Henke (Microelectronic Engineering 1994)
789 Automated optical proximity correctionCa rules-based approach Oberdan W. Otto, Joseph G. Garofalo, K.K. Low, Chi-Min Yuan, Richard C. Henderson, Christophe Pierrat, Robert L. Kostelak, Shiela Vaidya, P.K. Vasudev (in Optical/Laser Microlithography VII, T.A. Brunner, editor, 1994)
805 Fast sparse aerial image calculation for OPC Nick Cobb, Avideh Zakhor (in 15th Annual Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, G.V. Shelden and J.N. Wiley, editors, 1995)
Section Seven
Other Resolution Enhancement Techniques
817 Section Introduction
819 A new method for enhancing focus latitude in optical lithography: FLEX Hiroshi Fukuda, Norio Hasegawa, Toshihiko Tanaka, Tetsuya Hayashida (IEEE Electron Device Letters 1987)
821 Spatial filtering for depth of focus and resolution enhancement in optical lithography Hiroshi Fukuda, Tsuneo Terasawa, Shinji Okazaki (Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 1991)
825 Resolution enhancement by oblique illumination optical lithography using a transmittance-adjusted pupil filter Toshiyuki Horiuchi, Katsuhiro Harada, Seitaro Matsuo, Yoshinobu Takeuchi, Emi Tamechika, Yoshiaki Mimura (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1995)
836 Projection photolithography-liftoff techniques for production of 0.2-um metal patterns Mark D. Feuer, Daniel E. Prober (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1981)
840 Optical projection lithography using lenses with numerical apertures greater than unity Hiroaki Kawata, James M. Carter, Anthony Yen, Henry I. Smith (Microelectronic Engineering 1989)
846 1/8 um optical lithography G. Owen, R.F.W. Pease, D.A. Markle, A. Grenville, R.L. Hsieh, R. von Bunau, N.I. Maluf (Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 1992)
851 Resolution limit for optical lithography using polarized light illumination Satoru Asai, Isamu Hanyu, Masahiko Takikawa (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1993)
855 Multiple-exposure interferometric lithography Saleem H. Zaidi, S.R.J. Brueck (Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 1993)
864 Performance of resolution enhancement technique using both multiple exposure and nonlinear resist Masato Shibuya, Masaya Komatsu, Toshihiko Ozawa, Hiroshi Ooki (Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1994)
869 Author Index
873 Subject Index

Preface (partial)

From the beginning of the integrated circuit (IC) era, optical lithography has been the manufacturing technology of choice. The ability of these systems to reproduce an entire IC layer from a master mask (or reticle) in a single exposure offered tremendous throughput advantages over other technologies that addressed a field point by point. In addition to the compelling throughput advantages, there were cost advantages as well The infrastructure for light sources, lenses, reticles, photosensitive polymers, and other optical materials developed for other optical and photographic applications were also applied to IC lithography, allowing development resources to be shared.

The fundamental metric for any imaging technology, however, is its ability to resolve and distinguish two objects. This becomes especially important when those two objects will become two wires carrying different signals to different transistors. Here, traditional electron beam-based systems still have an advantage due to the far shorter wavelength of the electron.

In the 1960s Gordon Moore realized that the exponential growth in the number of transistors in an IC led to certain technical and economic advantages. Smaller transistors switch faster, allowing more operations per second. And more transistors with more interconnections enable computations of much greater complexity to be achieved. The virtuous circle of smaller features, higher density, and lower cost became codified in various forms as �Moore�s law� and led to an unprecedented growth in the computer industry.

It was recognized that this progress could not be based on optical lithography forever. Optical lithography, like any imaging technology, has resolution limits that are governed in part by the wavelength of the light used to form the images. The topic of this book is a path that has allowed optical lithography to keep pace with the demands of Moore�s law: resolution enhancement technology (RET).

To facilitate the selection of papers for this volume, I followed a couple of guidelines. First, I tried to find and include the basic historical papers that present the fundamental definitions of resolution and the earliest observations of the effects that provide the foundation of the various RETs. This includes the classical papers of Airy, Abbe, Rayleigh, and Sparrow that form the foundations of resolution. I also included Hopkins� seminal papers on imaging with partial coherence, which are often cited but rarely easy to find, and the early papers that defined resolution as it applied to optical lithography in the 1980s.

I also included the founding papers of Moore�s law. Even though they are not papers on optics, they are the key drivers of RET and advanced optical lithography, and therefore will be of great interest to those working in the field.

For the next

sections, I organized the milestone papers on the various RET approaches
according to the key physical variables: amplitude, phase, and direction. I tried to
find papers that represent the earliest developments of the ideas, as well as those that may have come later but have had, for a variety of reasons, a larger impact. Sections on further variations and combinations of techniques are also presented.

I also included a

section of milestones in the development of the CAD tools necessary
for enabling the practical application of RET. The adoption of these techniques in
production is only possible with the development of sophisticated software systems that can model the effects these techniques will have, and alter the IC layout appropriately. These applications have ultimately found a home not in a traditional optical discipline, but in the world of EDA software.

I added a final

section that presents a brief survey of additional RET topics. These
include novel techniques such as FLEX, pupil filtering, immersion lithography,
interferometric lithography, and two-photon lithography. This is not meant to be, by any means, a definitive collection of milestones on these additional topics. However, they are arguably resolution enhancement techniques, and more development in these areas may further extend the life of optical lithography.

Although this is a book on RET, not every technique that might enhance practical resolution is included. Even so, the selection of papers within the area of RET proved to be a challenge. Inevitably, many excellent papers were considered, initially included, and later cut from the list. Since only the test of time can allow the impact of a paper to be ascertained and qualify as a �milestone,� I set an arbitrary cutoff of 1995 for consideration in this volume. I originally considered using only papers over a decade old, but 1992�1996 were years of tremendous innovation in RET, and a natural cutoff date was hard to select. I settled on 1995 because it allowed Moore�s own 30-year retrospective on Moore�s law, presented as a keynote speech at SPIE�s Microlithography Symposium, to be included.

How far will it go? Professor Steve Brueck of the University of New Mexico recently commented that �there are no fundamental limits to optical lithography.� He has shown that creative combinations of RET can extend optical lithography to manufacture the features required by Moore�s law in 2018. Whether that continues to be practically and economically possible remains an exercise for the reader.

F.M. Schellenberg
Mentor Graphics, San Jose, CA
December 2003


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