Share Email Print

Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Fiber Optic Sensors
Format Member Price Non-Member Price

Book Description

The continued improvement and reduction in costs associated with fiber optic technology associated with fiber sensors permit application areas that were previously inaccessible. These trends are expected to continue as new techniques become available and older ones are successfully adapted to new applications. This Field Guide provides a broad introduction to a variety of fiber optic sensors that have been successfully developed from the 1970s to the present. A wide range of examples are provided to inspire readers with ideas for new sensors and uses.

Book Details

Date Published: 3 December 2014
Pages: 134
ISBN: 9781628413342
Volume: FG34

Table of Contents
SHOW Table of Contents | HIDE Table of Contents

Introduction
What Is a Fiber Optic Sensor?
Why Use a Fiber Optic Sensor?
Light as an Electromagnetic Wave
Light Modulation
Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Transduction
Some Optical Transducer Mechanisms

Components
Optical Fibers and Modes
Optical Fiber Types
Light-Emitting Diode
Semiconductor Laser Diode
Photodiode Detector
Avalanche Photodiode Detector
Color Sensors
Connectors and Splices
Lenses and GRIN Lenses
Waveplates
Polarizers
Diffraction Gratings
Fiber Bragg Gratings
Modulators

Sensor Design
Specification and Transducer Selection
Component Selection
Sensor Modeling

Intrinsic Multimode Sensors
FTIR Sensor Theory
FTIR Hydrophone
FTIR Fluid-Level Sensor
Microbend Sensor Theory
Microbend Pressure Sensor
Macrobend Sensor Theory
Macrobend Pressure Sensor
Modal Domain Sensor Theory
Modal Domain Vibration Sensor

Extrinsic Multimode Sensors
In-Line Fiber Coupling Theory
Fiber Coupling Pressure Sensor
Polarization Theory
Polarization Rotation Sensor
Photoelastic Sensor Theory
Photoelastic Pressure and Acoustic Sensing
Diffraction Grating Theory
Diffraction Grating Rotation Sensor
Schlieren Grating Theory
Schlieren Displacement and Acoustic Sensors
Chirped Grating Sensor Theory
Chirped Grating Displacement Sensor
Magneto-Optic Sensor Theory
Magneto-Optic Speed Sensor
Optrode Sensor Theory
Optrode pH Sensor
Fluorescence Theory
Fluorescence Temperature Sensor
Blackbody Theory
Blackbody Temperature Sensor
Optical Time Domain Reflectometry Theory
Optical Time Domain Wavefront Speed Detector
Evanescent-Wave Theory
Evanescent-Wave Chemical Sensor

Interferometers
Single-Mode Interferometers
Mach-Zehnder Interferometers
Mach-Zehnder Hydrophone
Mach-Zehnder Transducer Geometries
Michelson Interferometer
Sagnac Theory
Sagnac Rotation Sensor/Fiber Optic Gyro
Sagnac Acoustic Sensor
Sagnac Interferometer Strain Sensor

Bragg Gratings
Bragg Grating Fabrication
Bragg Grating Theory
Bragg Grating Simultaneous Strain and Temperature
Bragg Grating Transverse Strain
Bragg Grating Pressure Sensor

Fiber Etalon
Fiber Etalon Theory
Fiber Etalon Sensors

Multiplexing
Time Division Multiplexing
Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry
Frequency Division Multiplexing
Coherence Multiplexing
Spatial Multiplexing

Distributed Sensors
Distributed Raman Sensor
Distributed Brillouin Sensor
Brillouin Distributed Sensor Capabilities
Distributed Sagnac Sensor
Distributed Sagnac-Mach-Zehnder Sensor

Applications
Sagnac Secure-Communication System
Low-Coherence Strain-Sensor System
Civil Structure Applications
Damage-Assessment Microbend Sensor
Position Sensors
Smart Bed
Catheter Shape Sensing
Radiation Dosage Sensing
Proximity Fiber Sensors
Oil and Gas Applications
Strain Imaging and Monitoring Composite Materials
Plastic Optical Fibers
Integrated Optics
Fiber Light Sources
Polarization-Preserving Optical Fibers
Fiber Depolarizer

Useful Techniques
Manually Scribing and Breaking a Fiber
Using UV Curing Epoxy
Experimental Use of a Lock-In Amplifier


Preface

Fiber optic sensor work began in the mid-1970s with a variety of multimode fiber optic sensors and early iterations of Sagnac and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. Concerted efforts developed fiber optic gyros and acoustics sensors in the form of hydrophones; fiber gyros are currently used for aircraft and spacecraft navigation, including the Spirit and Opportunity rovers on Mars. They are used for naval and land navigation, in robots that mow soccer fields and clean floors, and in remote-controlled helicopters that spray crops. Acoustic technology originally developed for undersea surveillance is now used to support oil and gas exploration and extraction operations.

In the mid-1980s the field of fiber optic smart structures emerged as a way to monitor the health and integrity of structures through the manufacturing process, during installation, and throughout the lifetime of the structure. Distributed sensors based on Raman and Brillouin scattering have been used to support cure monitoring on large concrete structures such as dams and to monitor oil holes and pipelines.

The continued improvement and reduction in costs associated with fiber optic technology associated with fiber sensors permit application areas that were previously inaccessible. These trends are expected to continue as new techniques become available and older ones are successfully adapted to new applications.

This Field Guide provides a broad introduction to a variety of fiber optic sensors that have been successfully developed from the 1970s to the present. We hope that the included examples inspire readers with ideas for new sensors and applications.

William B. Spillman, Jr.
Floyd, Virginia

Eric Udd
Fairview, Oregon


© SPIE. Terms of Use
Back to Top