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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Astronomical Instrumentation
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Book Description

This Field Guide is a concise, organized reference that explains the functions and configurations of astronomical instrumentation. It provides an overview of aspects of astronomical instrumentation from principles of general optics and optical design to optical manufacturing and systems engineering. Practitioners will also gain valuable information on polarimeters, interferometers, coronagraphs, cryogenics, software, and more.

Book Details

Date Published: 20 July 2015
Pages: 156
ISBN: 9781628411775
Volume: FG32

Table of Contents
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Glossary of Symbols and Acronyms

General Optics
Refraction, Reflection, and Transmission
Brewster Angle and Total Internal Reflection
Images, Pupils, and Beams
Point-Spread Function
Modulation Transfer Function
Spectral Transfer Function

Optical Elements
Colored Glass Filters
Interference Filters
Astronomical Bandpass Filters
Crystal Polarizers
Optical Fibers

Detector Overview
Intrinsic Photoconductors
CCD and CMOS Detectors
Extrinsic and Stressed Photoconductors
BIB Detectors and (Avalanche) Photodiodes
Coherent (Heterodyne) Detectors
CCD and CMOS Readouts
Infrared Array Readouts
Detector Noise and Artifacts
Detector Radiation Effects in Space
Detector Flat Fielding

Telescopes and Imagers
Correctors and Wide-Field Imagers
Focal Reducers
Reimaging Optics
High-Resolution Imagers

Spectrograph Overview
Single-Slit Spectrometer
Echelle Spectrometers
Slitless Spectrometers
Fabry–Pérot Interferometer
Fourier Transform Spectrometer
Integral Field Spectrometer
Multi-object Spectrometer
OH-Suppression Spectrographs
Spectral Data Analysis

Rotating Waveplate Polarimeters
Liquid Crystal Polarimeters
Spectral Modulation Polarimeters

Interferometer Principle and Angular Resolution
Delay Lines
Beam Combiners
Fringe Visibility
Fringe Tracking and Closure Phase
Aperture Synthesis and (u,v) Plane
Field of View and Sensitivity
Image Processing

Focal-Plane Coronagraphs
Pupil-Plane Coronagraphs
Space Coronagraphs

Adaptive Optics
Adaptive Optics
Atmospheric Turbulence: Seeing
Wavefront Sensors
Deformable Mirrors
Adaptive Optics Control
Laser Guide Stars
Operation Modes

Optical Design
Optical Design Principles
Design Approach
Ray Tracing
Tolerance Analysis
Stray Light Control and Baffles

Optics Mounts
Actuators and Motors
Mechanical Engineering for Space

Vacuum and Cryogenics
Cooling Methods
Thermal Models
Thermal Effects in Space

Software and Electronics
Instrument Control System
Data Handling
Data Transfer from Space
Data Analysis Overview
Electronics: Cabling

Systems Engineering
Systems Engineering: Requirements Definition
Block Diagrams
Interface Control
Error Budgets
Noise and its Distribution
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
Instrument Sensitivity and Integration Time
Signal Sampling
Project Management
Technology Development
Risk Management
Quality Management

Manufacturing, Assembly, Integration, and Testing
Optics Manufacturing
Optics Testing
Instrument Commissioning
Operations and Maintenance

Optical Material Properties
Mirror Substrate Material Properties
Mechanical Material Properties
Material Selection
SO 10110 Optical Drawing Standard

Equation Summary



This Field Guide to Astronomical Instrumentation is the one book that the three of us would want to carry with us if we had to single-handedly design an astronomical instrument on a remote mountain top. To keep it concise, it focuses on the ultraviolet to infrared wavelength range. The Field Guide is not intended to serve as a textbook, but as a handy desktop reference to be found in the labs and offices of instrument builders.

This book contains information on a wide range of topics, from fundamental physics to project management, and from technical concepts to material properties. Only the most important concepts and equations are presented here. In many areas, dedicated SPIE Field Guides discuss particular topics in much more detail. While we tried to maintain consistency with other volumes in this series, we wrote this Field Guide in the language that instrumental astronomers use, which might sometimes

A Field Guide that strives to cover such a wide variety of topics will naturally overlook some potentially relevant topics. We look forward to suggestions from our readers on how to improve this Field Guide for its next edition.

Last but not least, we greatly appreciate the continuous support of our families in this endeavor.

Christoph U. Keller
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, The Netherlands

Ramon Navarro
NOVA Optical & Infrared Instrumentation Division at ASTRON, The Netherlands

Bernhard R. Brandl
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, The Netherlands

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