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Spie Press Book

Field Guide to Displacement Measuring Interferometry
Author(s): Jonathan D. Ellis
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Book Description

This Field Guide provides a practical treatment of the fundamental theory of displacement measuring interferometry, with examples of interferometry systems and uses. It outlines alignment techniques for optical components, signal processing systems for phase measurements, and laser stabilization for homodyne and heterodyne sources. The concept of displacement measurement uncertainty is discussed with a practical example of calculating uncertainty budgets. For practicing engineers, this Field Guide will serve as a refresher manual for error sources and uncertainty budgets. For researchers, it will bring new insight to the way in which this technology can be useful in their field. For new engineers, researchers, and students, it will also serve as an introduction into basic alignment techniques for breadboard-based optical systems.


Book Details

Date Published: 7 January 2014
Pages: 154
ISBN: 9780819497994
Volume: FG30

Table of Contents
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Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

Fundamentals of Light and Interference
Basic Assumptions
Degrees of Freedom
The Meter
Electromagnetic Radiation
Electric Field
Polarization States
Complex Polarization
Superposition
Interference
Irradiance
Polarization Overlap
Fringe Contrast
Interferometer Components and Notation
More Interferometer Components
Polarization-Based Components
Waveplates
Ghosts, Absorption, and Scatter
Michelson's Interferometer
Temporal Coherence
Displacement from Phase Change
Unwrapping and Folding

Basic Interferometry Systems
Interferometry Systems
Homodyne Interferometer
Retroreflector Homodyne Interferometer
Homodyne Optical Power Efficiency
Polarization-Sensitive Homodyne Interferometer
Directional Sensitivity
Directional Sensitivity
Homodyne Laser Encoder
Heterodyne Interferometry Systems
Basic Heterodyne Interferometer
Heterodyne Directional Sensitivity
Homodyne and Heterodyne Comparison

Interferometry System Characteristics
Unequal Plane Mirror Interferometer
Plane Mirror Interferometer (PMI)
PMI Variants
Beam Walkoff
Doppler Velocity
Dynamic Range and Acceleration Limitations
Laser Sources
Optical Power and Laser Modes
Zeeman-Stabilized Laser
Two-Mode Intensity-Balanced Laser
Heterodyne Frequency Generation
Phase Measurements
Interference Detection
Detection Bandwidth
Phase Quadrature Measurements
Time Interval Analysis
Lock-In Detection
Discrete Fourier Transform

Special Interferometer Configurations
Special Interferometer Configurations
Quad-Pass Interferometer
Differential Interferometer
Coaxial Differential Interferometer
Angle Interferometer
Straightness Interferometer
Refractometry
Wavelength Tracking
Refractive Index Tracker
Multiaxis Systems
Multi-DOF Interferometers
X-Y-Theta System
Tip-Tilt-Z System

Interferometer Alignment
Setup and Alignment Techniques
Commercial Interferometer Alignment
Vector Alignment and Breadboard Alignment
Beam Fly Height
Grid Alignment
Normal Mirror Alignment
45-deg Mirror Alignment
Mirror Steering
Beamsplitter Alignment
Polarizer Alignment
45-deg HWP Alignment
45-deg QWP Alignment
Polarization Flipping
In-line Beam Steering
Cosine Error
Cosine Mirror Alignment

Mixing and Periodic Error
Lissajous Figure
Source Mixing
Beam Leakage
Periodic Error
Assessing Periodic Error
Quantifying Periodic Error
Spatial Fourier Analysis

Measurement Errors and Uncertainty
Measurement Uncertainty
Probability Distributions
Combined Uncertainty
Uncertainty Sources
DMI Measurement Model
Source Vacuum Wavelength
Refractive Index Uncertainty
Cosine Error: Retroreflector Target
Cosine Error: Plane Mirror Target
Phase Change Uncertainty
Abbé Uncertainty
Measurement Axis Location
Interferometer Thermal Drift
Deadpath Uncertainty
Periodic Error Uncertainty
Surface Figure Error
Data Age Uncertainty
Error Corrections
Air Refractive Index Compensation
Error Budget

Measurement Uncertainty Example
Stage Measurement Uncertainty Example
Example Uncertainty Parameters
Example Uncertainty Propagation
Example Combined Uncertainty

Equation Summary

Bibliography

Index


This Field Guide to Displacement Measuring Interferometry delves into a subfield of optical metrology that is prevalent in many precision systems. Precision systems that require accurate positioning knowledge use displacement measuring interferometry either through direct measurement or calibration of alternative metrology systems. Displacement measuring interferometry offers high-accuracy measurements with a wide bandwidth and direct traceability to international length standards.

The aim of this Field Guide is to provide a practical treatment of the fundamental theory of displacement interferometry along with examples of interferometry systems and uses, to outline alignment techniques for optical components, and to discuss measurement uncertainty with a practical example.

For practicing engineers, this will serve as a refresher manual for error sources and uncertainty budgets. For researchers, this will hopefully bring new insight to ways in which this technology can be useful in their field. For new engineers, researchers, and students, this Field Guide will serve as an introduction to basic alignment techniques for breadboard-based optical systems.

I would like to thank Vivek Badami for his helpful insight and for being a great mentor and friend. I am grateful for a thorough review of this manuscript by Steven Gillmer. I am indebted to many professors for training me in precision engineering and metrology, especially Stuart T. Smith, Robert J. Hocken, and the other faculty members of the Center for Precision Metrology at UNC Charlotte.

This Field Guide is dedicated to Kate Medicus for reducing my uncertainty budget in life.

Jonathan D. Ellis
Institute of Optics
University of Rochester


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