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Spie Press Book

Selected Papers on CCD and CMOS Imagers
Editor(s): Moon Gi Kang
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Book Description

Imaging systems that employ CCD and CMOS sensors are now almost universal for certain scientific, medical, and consumer electronic purposes. This volume covers CCD and CMOS technological development, including approaches to overcoming the technology's intrinsic physical limitations.

Book Details

Date Published: 12 August 2003
Pages: 652
ISBN: 9780819497987
Volume: MS177

Table of Contents
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Section One
Technical Overview
3 Solid-state image sensor: technologies and applications Yawcheng Lo (in Input/Output and Imaging Technologies, Yusheng Tim Tsai, Teh-Ming Kung, Jan Larsen, editors, 1998)
14 The invention of the CCD George E. Smith (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 2001)
19 Bucket-brigade electronics--New possibilities for delay, time-axis conversion, and scanning F.L.J. Sangster, K. Teer (IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 1969)
25 Free charge transfer in charge-coupled devices James E. Carnes, Walter F. Kosonocky, Edward G. Ramberg (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1972)
36 Charge-injection imaging: operating techniques and performances characteristics Hubert K. Burke, Gerald J. Michon (IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 1976)
44 High speed multiplexed pipelined optoelectronic devices: CCDs and EBCCDs M. Gruw� (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 1997)
48 MOS area sensor: Part I--design consideration and performance of an n-p-n structure 484 x 384 element color MOS imager Norio Koike, Iwao Takemoto, Kazuhiro Satoh, Shoji Hanamura, Shusaku Nagahara, Masaharu Kubo (IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 1980)
54 A random access photodiode array for intelligent image capture Orly Yadid-Pecht, Ran Ginosar, Yosi Shacham Diamand (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1991)
63 CMOS image sensors: electronic camera-on-a-chip Eric R. Fossum (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1997)
73 CMOS active pixel image sensors Eric R. Fossum (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 1997)
80 CMOS sensor systems Bedrich J. Hosticka (Sensors and Actuators A 1998)
87 Avalanche photodiode image sensor in standard silicon BiCMOS technology Alice Biber, Peter Seitz, Heinz J�ckel (Sensors and Actuators A 2001)
Section Two
Physical Limitations and Efforts to Overcome Them
Section 2.1 Sensor Noise Issues
101 Noise sources in charge-coupled devices J.E. Carnes, W.F. Kosonocky (RCA Review 1972)
110 The quantitative effects of interface states on the performance of charge-coupled devices Michael F. Tompsett (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1973)
121 Noise reduction techniques for CCD image sensors G.R. Hopkinson, D.H. Lumb (Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments 1982)
130 Dynamic suppression of interface-state dark current in buried-channel CCD's Barry E. Burke, Stephanie A. Gajar (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1991)
136 CCD on-chip amplifiers: noise performance versus MOS transistor dimensions Peter Centen (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1991)
147 Compensation for readout noise in CCD images Donald L. Snyder, Carl W. Helstrom, Aaron D. Lanterman, Mohammad Faisal, Richard L. White (Journal of the Optical Society of America A 1995)
159 Photon-noise-limited operation of intensified CCD cameras A. Frenkel, M.A. Sartor, M.S. Wlodawski (Applied Optics 1997)
169 Sub-Poisson statistics observed in an electronically shuttered and back-illuminated CCD pixel Robert K. Reich (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1997)
174 Offset-free black restoration and simplified correlated double sampling for linear CCDs M.G. Plichta, G.W. Milne (Electronics Letters 1997)
176 Noise analysis of a fully integrated CMOS image sensor Kalwant Singh (in Conference on Sensors, Cameras, and Applications for Digital Photography, Nitin Sampat, Thomas Yeh, editors, 1999)
184 Characterisation of the signal and noise transfer of CCD cameras for electron detection R�diger R. Meyer, Angus I. Kirkland (Microscopy Research and Technique 2000)
196 Design of an APS CMOS image sensor for low light level applications using standard CMOS technology J. Goy, B. Courtois, J.M. Karam, F. Pressecq (Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing 2001)
Section 2.2 Sensitivity and Limited Dynamic Range Issues
209 An automatic light spectrum compensation method for CCD white balance measurement Dahong Qian, James Toker, Selim Bencuya (IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 1997)
214 A fast calculation algorithm for the charge transfer loss in CCDs N. Krause, U.G. Briel, M. Popp, H. Soltau, T. Stadlbauer, L. Str�der (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 2000)
221 Sensitivity improvement in progressive-scan FT-CCDs for digital still camera applications Harry C. van Kuijk, Jan T. Bosiers, Agnes C. Kleimann, Laurent Le Cam, Joris P. Maas, Herman L. Peek, Christian R. Peschel (International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) Technical Digest 2000)
225 Optical characterization methods for solid-state image sensors M. Willemin, N. Blanc, G.K. Lang, S. Lauxtermann, P. Schwider, P. Seitz, M. W�ny (Optics and Lasers in Engineering 2001)
235 High dynamic range imaging: spatially varying pixel exposures Shree K. Nayar, Tomoo Mitsunaga (Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition 2000)
243 High sensitivity high dynamic, digital CMOS imager M. Waeny, S. Tanner, S. Lauxtermann, N. Blanc, M. Willemin, M. Rechsteiner, E. Doering, J. Grupp, P. Seitz, F. Pellandini, M. Ansorge (in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications II, Morley M. Blouke, John Canosa, Natin Sampat, editors, 2001)
250 A high-sensitivity CCD image sensor using source follower circuit with actively controlled gain characteristics Sangsik Park, Hyungsoo Uh, Seokrim Choi (Sensors and Actuators A 2002)
Section 2.3 Spatial Resolution Issues
257 A new device architecture suitable for high-resolution and high-performance image sensors Jaroslav Hynecek (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1988)
264 A 1920(H) x 1035(V) pixel high-definition CCD image sensor Eiji Oda, Kenji Nagano, Takanori Tanaka, Nobuhiko Mutoh, Kozo Orihara (IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 1989)
271 A 1/3-in 270 000 pixel CCD image sensor Toshihiro Kuriyama, Hirotatsu Kodama, Toshiyuki Kozono, Yasushi Kitahama, Yoshikimi Morita, Yoshimitsu Hiroshima (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1991)
276 A 2-million-pixel CCD image sensor overlaid with an amorphous silicon photoconversion layer Sohei Manabe, Yosiyuki Mastunaga, Akihiko Furukawa, Kensaku Yano, Yukio Endo, Ryohei Miyagawa, Yosinori Iida, Yositaka Egawa, Hidenori Shibata, Hidetosi Nozaki, Naoshi Sakuma, Nozomu Harada (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1991)
283 Multiresolution image sensor Sabrina E. Kemeny, Roger Panicacci, Bedabrata Pain, Larry Matthies, Eric R. Fossum (IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 1997)
292 Characterization of CMOS image sensors with Nyquist rate pixel level ADC David Yang, Hui Tian, Boyd Fowler, Xinqiao Liu, Abbas El Gamal (in Sensors, Cameras, and Applications for Digital Photography, Nitin Sampat, Thomas Yeh, editors, 1999)
303 Novel subpixel imaging system with linear CCD sensors Desheng Wen, Xinping Liu, Wei Qiao, Hu Wang, Nianmao Deng (in Sensors and Controls for Intelligent Manufacturing II, Peter E. Orban, editor, 2001)
Section 2.4 Artifact Issues (Malfunctioning, Smearing, and Blooming)
313 A method for processing CCD images to remove cosmic rays and other randomly positioned spurious events--theory and experiment L. Kay, D.A. Sadler (Measurement Science and Technology 1991)
317 Photoresponse nonlinearity of solid-state image sensors with antiblooming protection Eric G. Stevens (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1991)
321 A 1-megapixel, progressive-scan image sensor with antiblooming control and lag- free operation Eric G. Stevens, Bruce C. Burkey, David N. Nichols, Ying S. Yee, David L. Losee, Teh-Hsuang Lee, Timothy J. Tredwell, Rajindar P. Khosla (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1991)
329 Novel deblurring algorithms for images captured with CCD cameras Chen-Hsien Wu, John M.M. Anderson (Journal of the Optical Society of America A 1997)
339 Smear correction for frame transfer charge-coupled-device cameras Wim Ruyten (Optics Letters 1999)
342 Restoration and frequency analysis of smeared CCD images Keith Powell, Deeph Chana, David Fish, Chris Thompson (Applied Optics 1999)
Section 2.5 Color Reconstruction for the Single CCD Imager
349 Color imaging system using a single CCD area array Peter L.P. Dillon, David M. Lewis, Frank G. Kaspar (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1978)
355 Color reproduction of a single chip color camera with a frame transfer CCD Kiyotsugu Ishikawa, Susumu Hashimato, Yoshiaki Sone, Takao Kunii (IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 1981)
358 2/3-inch format MOS single-chip color imager Masakazu Aoki, Haruhisa Ando, Shinya Ohba, Iwao Takemoto, Shusaku Nagahara, Toshio Nakano, Masaharu Kubo, Tsutomu Fujita (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1982)
364 Color filter arrays based on mutually exclusive blue noise patterns Wei Zhu, Kevin Parker, Michael A. Kriss (Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation 1999)
387 Edge-adaptive color interpolation algorithm for progressive scan charge-coupled device image sensors Bong Soo Hur, Moon Gi Kang (Optical Engineering 2001)
Section Three
Applications
Section 3.1 Astronomical Imaging
403 CMOS active pixel sensor star tracker with regional electronic shutter Orly Yadid-Pecht, Bedabrata Pain, Craig Staller, Christopher Clark, Eric Fossum (IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 1997)
407 Developments in X-ray and astronomical CCD imagers J.A. Gregory, B.E. Burke, B.B. Kosicki, R.K. Reich (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 1999)
415 Developments in MOS CCDs for X-ray astronomy P.J. Pool, R. Holtom, D.J. Burt, A.D. Holland (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 1999)
422 Recent progress on CCDs for astronomical imaging D.E. Groom (in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, Masanori Iye, Alan F. Moorwood, editors, 2000)
434 Back-illuminated, fully-depleted CCD image sensors for use in optical and near-IR astronomy D.E. Groom, S.E. Holland, M.E. Levi, N.P. Palaio, S. Perlmutter, R.J. Stover, M. Wei (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 2000)
441 CCD detectors for the advanced camera for surveys Marco Sirianni, Mark Clampin, George F. Hartig, Holland C. Ford, David A. Golimowski, Garth Illingworth, Pam Sullivan, Morley Blouke, Michael Lesser, Bill Burmester, Ron Schrein, Randy Kimble (in Optical and IR Telescope Instrumentation and Detectors, Masanori Iye, Alan F. Moorwood, editors, 2000)
447 Whole-sky patrol with 7kx4k-CCD chips P. Kroll, F. Fleischmann (Astronomische Nachrichten 2001)
Section 3.2 Medical Imaging
451 MTF evaluation of a phosphor-coated CCD for x-ray imaging M. Gambaccini, A. Taibi, A. Del Guerra, M. Marziani, A. Tuffanelli (Physics in Medicine and Biology 1996)
459 A CMOS APS for dental X-ray imaging using scintillating sensors M.A. Abdalla, C. Fr�jdh, C.S. Petersson (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 2001)
466 A CCD-based optical CT scanner for high-resolution 3D imaging of radiation dose distributions: equipment specifications, optical simulations and preliminary results Simon J. Doran, Koen Klein Koerkamp, Mamdouh A. Bero, Paul Jenneson, Edward J. Morton, Walter B. Gilboy (Physics in Medicine and Biology 2001)
489 A comparison of the imaging properties of CCD-based devices used for small field digital mammography D.S. Evans, A. Workman, M. Payne (Physics in Medicine and Biology 2002)
508 Evaluation of intraoral CCD camera for dental examination in forensic inspection Tamiyuki Tsuzuki, Asao Ueno, Masahiro Kajiwara, Yoichi Hanaoka, Hideki Uchiyama, Yukihisa Agawa, Tetsuya Takagi, Yoshinobu Sato (Legal Medicine 2002)
Section 3.3 Consumer Electronics: Digital Cameras and Camcorders
517 A new CCD architecture of high-resolution and sensitivity for color digital still picture Masatoshi Tabei, Kiyotaka Kobayashi, Makoto Shizukuishi (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1991)
524 A 2/3-in 1187(H) x 581(V) S-VHS-compatible frame-transfer CCD for ESP and movie mode Jan T. Bosiers, Agnes C. Kleimann, Bart G. Dillen, Herman L. Peek, Andre L. Kokshoorn, Noortje J. Daemen, Arjen G. van der Sijde, Lieve T. van Gaal (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1991)
534 High-definition still image processing system using a new structure CCD sensor Hiroshi Tamayama, Osamu Saito, Masafumi Inuiya (in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications, Morley M. Blouke, Nitin Sampat, George M. Williams Jr., Thomas Yeh, editors, 2000)
540 Low-power digital image sensor for still picture image acquisition Steve Tanner, Stefan Lauxtermann, Martin Waeny, Michel Willemin, Nicolas Blanc, Joachim Grupp, Rudolf Dinger, Elko Doering, Michael Ansorge, Peter Seitz, Fausto Pellandini (in Sensors and Camera Systems for Scientific, Industrial, and Digital Photography Applications II, Morley M. Blouke, John Canosa, Nitin Sampat, editors, 2001)
548 Frame transfer CCDs for digital still cameras: concept, design, and evaluation Jan T. Bosiers, Agnes C. Kleimann, Harry C. van Kuijk, Laurent Le Cam, Herman L. Peek, Joris P. Maas, Albert J.P. Theuwissen (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 2002)
Section 3.4 Consumer Electronics: HDTV Cameras
561 HDTV single-chip CCD color camera Takanori Tanaka, Satoshi Katoh, Ikuo Akiyama, Nobukazu Teranishi, Kozo Orihara, Eiji Oda (IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 1990)
568 The dual green pickup experiment for a compact HDTV color camera with three- 2/3 inch CCDs Fumio Okano, Yoshihiro Fujita, Kohji Mitani, Kazuhiro Kawashiri, Tetsuo Toma (IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting 1991)
574 A 1" format 1.5M pixel IT-CCD image sensor for an HDTV camera system Kiyohiko Sakakibara, Hidekazu Yamamoto, Shigeto Maegawa, Horoshi Kawashima, Yasutaka Nishioka, Masao Yamawaki, Sotoju Asai, Natsuro Tsubouchi, Tomohide Okumura, Junichi Fujino (IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 1991)
Section 3.5 Particle Detection and X-Ray Imaging
583 X-UV imaging with backside illuminated CCDs in laser- matter interaction experiments A. Mens, R. Benattar, J.L. Bocher, J.M. Koenig, J.P. Le Breton, D. Mazataud, P. Sali�res, D. Schirmann (Journal of Optics (Paris) 1993)
589 X-ray CCD response functions, front to back M.W. Bautz, G.Y. Prigozhin, M.J. Pivovaroff, S.E. Jones, S.E. Kissel, G.R. Ricker (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 1999)
602 Charge diffusion in CCD X-ray detectors George G. Pavlov, John A. Nousek (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 1999)
621 X-ray CCD calibration system using fluorescent lines K. Hamaguchi, Y. Maeda, H. Matsumoto, M. Nishiuchi, H. Tomida, K. Koyama, H. Awaki, T.G. Tsuru (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 2000)
626 Particle tracking using CMOS monolithic active pixel sensor G. Claus, C. Colledani, W. Dulinski, D. Husson, R. Turchetta, J.L. Riester, G. Deptuch, G. Orazi, M. Winter (Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 2001)

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