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The Wonder of Nanotechnology: Quantum Optoelectronic Devices and Applications
Editor(s): Manijeh Razeghi; Leo Esaki; Klaus von Klitzing
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Book Description

When you look closely, Nature is nanotechnology at its finest. From a single cell, a factory all by itself, to complex systems, such as the nervous system or the human eye, each is composed of specialized nanostructures that exist to perform a specific function. This same beauty can be mirrored when we interact with the tiny physical world that is the realm of quantum mechanics.

The Wonder of Nanotechnology: Quantum Optoelectronic Devices and Applications, edited by Manijeh Razeghi, Leo Esaki, and Klaus von Klitzing focuses on the application of nanotechnology to modern semiconductor optoelectronic devices. Electrons, photons, and even thermal properties can all be engineered at the nanolevel. The 2D quantum well, possibly the simplest aspect of nanotechnology, has dramatically enhanced the efficiency and versatility of electronic and optoelectronic devices. While this area alone is fascinating, nanotechnology has now progressed to 1D (quantum wire) and 0D (quantum dot) systems that exhibit remarkable and sometimes unexpected behaviors. With these components serving as the modern engineer's building blocks, it is a brave new world we live in, with endless possibilities for new technology and scientific discovery.


Book Details

Date Published: 5 November 2013
Pages: 1000
ISBN: 9780819495969
Volume: PM238
Errata

Table of Contents
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Foreword by Leo Esaki
Preface by Klaus von Klitzing
Introduction by Manijeh Razeghi
"An Imaging Perspective from the Nanometer Scale" by Nibir K. Dhar
List of Contributors

I HISTORIC OVERVIEW

1. Role of Symmetry in Conductance, Capacitance, and Doping of Quantum Dots
Raphael Tsu and Tim LaFave, Jr.
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Birth of the Superlattice
     1.2.1 Response of a time-dependent electric field and Bloch oscillation
1.3 Resonant Tunneling in Manmade Quantum Wells
     1.3.1 Time-dependent resonant tunneling
     1.3.2 Quantum cascade laser with superlattice components
     1.3.3 Type-II superlattice
     1.3.4 Terahertz sound in Stark ladder superlattices
     1.3.5 Cold cathode
1.4 Size-Dependent Dielectric Constant ε(a)
1.5 Role of Symmetry in Capacitance of Few-Electron Quantum Dots
     1.5.1 A classical correspondence between quantum dots and atomic structure
     1.5.2 Toward a general solution of the Thomson problem and atomic structure
     1.5.3 The dielectric function and atomic dimension
1.6 Symmetry: Key in Interaction with Nanotechnology
1.7 A Few Important Considerations
References

II MATERIALS

2. Electrical, Optical, and Structural Studies of InAs/InGaSb VLWIR Superlattices
Gail J. Brown, Said Elhamri, William C. Mitchel, Heather J. Haugan, Krishnamurthy Mahalingam, Mu J. Kim, and Frank Szmulowicz
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Sample Fabrication/Design
2.3 Structural Characterization
2.4 Optical Characterization
2.5 Electronic Transport Measurements
2.6 Electronic Transport Modeling
2.7 Summary
References

3. InAs/InAs1–xSbx Superlattices on GaSb Substrates: A Promising Material System for Mid- and Long-Wavelength Infrared Detectors
Elizabeth H. Steenbergen, Oray Orkun Cellek, Hua Li, Shi Liu, Xiaomeng Shen, David J. Smith, and Yong-Hang Zhang
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Design
3.3 Growth and Structural Characteristics
3.4 Optical Characteristics
3.5 Infrared Detectors
3.6 Summary
References

4.Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Distribution in Superlattice Structures
Chuanle Zhou and Matthew A. Grayson
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Thermal Conductivity Tensor
     4.2.1 Cross-plane thermal conductivity
     4.2.2 In-plane thermal conductivity
     4.2.3 Error analysis
4.3 Thermal Conductivity of T2SL
4.4 Thermal Distribution
4.5 Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References

5. Superlinear Luminescence and Enhancement of Optical Power in GaSb-based Heterostructures with High Conduction-Band Offsets and Nanostructures with Deep Quantum Wells
Maya P. Mikhailova, Leonid V. Danilov, Karina V. Kalinina, Edward V. Ivanov, Nikolay D. Stoyanov, Georgy G. Zegrya, Yury P. Yakovlev, Alice Hospodková Jiři Pangrác, Markéta Zíková, and Eduard Hulicius
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Superlinear Electroluminescence in GaSb-based Narrow-Gap Heterostructures with High Conduction-Band Offsets
5.3 Superlinear Electroluminescence in GaSb-based Nanostructures with a Deep Al(As)Sb/InAsSb/Al(As)Sb QW
5.4 Theoretical Consideration of Radiative and Auger Recombination in Deep QWs
5.5 Conclusions
Acknowledgment
References

6. Antimonide Quantum Dot Nanostructures for Novel Photonic Device Applications
Anthony Krier, Peter J. Carrington, Qiandong Zhuang, Robert J. Young, Manus Hayne, Lu Qi, Juanita James, Magnus C. Wagener, J. Reinhardt Botha, Paul Koenraad, and Erwin Smakman
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of InSb Quantum Dots
6.3 Characterization of InSb Quantum Dots
6.4 MBE Growth of GaSb Quantum Dots
6.5 Solar Cells Containing Stacks of GaSb Quantum Rings
6.6 Summary
Acknowledgments
References

7. n-Type Doping in GaSb using Dimethyltellurium (DMTe) by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD)
Ari Handono Ramelan
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Review of Te-Doped GaSb Growth
7.3 Dopant Impurities
7.4 Growth of Te-Doped GaSb
     7.4.1 Metalorganic sources
     7.4.2 Growth condition
7.5 Characterization
7.6 Results and Discussion
     7.6.1 Surface morphology and growth rate
     7.6.2 Electrical properties
7.7 Conclusions
References

8. AlGaN-based Intersubband Device Technology
Can Bayram, Devendra K. Sadana, and Manijeh Razeghi
8.1 Introduction to Terahertz Devices
     8.1.1 Terahertz applications
     8.1.2 Available terahertz sources
     8.1.3 Conventional semiconductor and III-nitride terahertz sources
     8.1.4 III-nitride material challenges
8.2 III-Nitride MOCVD
     8.2.1 Effect of growth temperature
     8.2.2 High-Al-content structures
     8.2.3 Low-Al-content structures
8.3 Infrared Optical Devices
     8.3.1 Near-infrared devices
     8.3.2 Mid-infrared devices
     8.3.3 Toward terahertz
     8.3.4 Conclusion
8.4 Resonant Tunneling Diodes
     8.4.1 Introduction
     8.4.2 Device design
     8.4.3 Material growth
     8.4.4 Device fabrication
     8.4.5 Electrical characterization
8.5 Summary
8.6 Conclusions
References

III LASERS

9. Advances in High-Power Quantum Cascade Lasers and Applications
Arkadiy Lyakh, Richard Maulini, Alexei Tsekoun, Boris Tadjikov, and C. Kumar N. Patel
9.1 Introduction
9.2 MWIR Laser Design
9.3 Tapered-Waveguide Geometry
9.4 Silicon Carbide Submounts
9.5 MWIR QCL Experimental Data
9.6 LWIR QCL Design
9.7 LWIR QCL Experimental Data
9.8 Conclusion
References

10. High-Performance Quantum Cascade Lasers for Industrial Applications
Mariano Troccoli, Jenyu Fan, Gene Tsvid, and Xiaojun Wang
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Manufacturing of High-Performance QC Lasers
     10.2.1 Design
     10.2.2 Growth
     10.2.3 Fabrication
10.3 Results
     10.3.1 High-power multimode devices
     10.3.2 Low-power-consumption distributed-feedback-laser devices
     10.3.3 Power scaling: arrays
10.4 Conclusions
References

11. Mid-infrared Tunable Surface-Emitting Lasers for Gas Spectroscopy
Hans Zogg, Ferdinand Felder, and Matthias Fill
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Some Properties of Narrow-Gap Lead Chalcogenides (IV-VI Compound Semiconductors)
     11.2.1 Structure, binary compositions, alloying
     11.2.2 Band structure and Auger recombination
     11.2.3 Permittivities
     11.2.4 Defects and non–lattice-matched growth
     11.2.5 Growth on Si(111) and thermal-mismatch dislocation glide
11.3 Applications
     11.3.1 Broadband photovoltaic IV-VI mid-infrared detectors
     11.3.2 Resonant-cavity-enhanced detectors
     11.3.3 Edge-emitting laser diodes
     11.3.4 Monolithic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and microdisk lasers
11.4 VECSELs
     11.4.1 Principle and structure of the long cavity
     11.4.2 Optical and electronic simulation
     11.4.3 Short cavity and end pumping
11.5 Conclusions
References

12. Frequency Noise and Linewidth of Mid-infrared Continuous-Wave Quantum Cascade Lasers: An Overview
Stéphane Schilt, Lionel Tombez, Gianni Di Domenico, and Daniel Hofstetter
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Frequency Noise and Laser Linewidth in QCLs: Experimental Methods
     12.2.1 Relation between frequency noise and laser linewidth
     12.2.2 Frequency noise measurement methods
12.3 Intrinsic Linewidth in QCLs
12.4 Impact of Technical Noise on the QCL Experimental Linewidth
12.5 Overview of Reported Frequency Noise Spectra in 4- to 5-μm QCLs
12.6 Temperature Dependence of the Frequency Noise in a QCL
12.7 The Origin of Frequency Noise in QCLs
12.8 Conclusion and Outlook
References

13. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor Quantum Cascade Lasers Operating at Terahertz Frequencies
Hung Chi Chou, John Zeller, Anas Mazady, and Mehdi Anwar
13.1 Introduction
     13.1.1 Motivation
     13.1.2 Terahertz QCLs: background and recent developments
     13.1.3 Terahertz QCLs: challenges
13.2 Terahertz QCLs: Structure and Design
     13.2.1 Lasing in terahertz QCLs
     13.2.2 Rate equations of a three-level QCL
     13.2.3 Electron transmission in QCLs
13.3 Simulation and Analysis
     13.3.1 Absorption and optical gain
     13.3.2 Terahertz output power and wall-plug efficiency
     13.3.3 Polar versus nonpolar cases
13.4 Conclusion
References

IV DETECTORS

14. HgCdTe versus Other Material Systems: A Historical Look
Antoni Rogalski
14.1 Introduction
14.2 The HgCdTe Era
14.3 Alternative-Material Systems
     14.3.1 PbSnTe
     14.3.2 InSb and InGaAs
     14.3.3 GaAs/AlGaAs QW SLs
     14.3.4 InAs/GaInSb strained-layer SLs
     14.3.5 Hg-based alternatives to HgCdTe
14.4 Readiness Level of LWIR Detector Technologies
14.5 Summary
References

15. Type-II Superlattices: Status and Trends
Elena A. Plis and Sanjay Krishna
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Limitations of T2SLS Technology
     15.2.1 Short carrier lifetime
     15.2.2 Passivation
     15.2.3 Heterostructure engineering
     15.2.4 Nonuniformity and reproducibility issues
     15.2.5 Spectral crosstalk in multicolor T2SLS imagers
15.3 Proposed Solutions
     15.3.1 Ga-free type-II InAs/InAsSb superlattice detectors
     15.3.2 Interband cascade infrared photodetector (ICIP) architecture
     15.3.3 InAs/GaSb T2SLS MWIR detectors grown on (111) GaSb substrates
15.4 Summary
Acknowledgments
References

16. MWIR Detectors: A Comparison of Strained-Layer Superlattice Photodiodes with HgCdTe
William E. Tennant
16.1 Introduction: Why This Comparison?
16.2 Some Diode Basics
     16.2.1 Diode architecture
     16.2.2 The key metric: background-limited performance (BLIP)
16.3 Real MWIR Devices at 150 K
     16.3.1 HgCdTe
     16.3.2 Strained-layer superlattice (SLS)
16.4 Performance Assessment and Comparison
16.5 Summary and Conclusions
References

17. Mid- and Long-Wavelength Barrier Infrared Detectors
David Z. Ting, Alexander Soibel, Sam A. Keo, Cory J. Hill, Jason M. Mumolo, Linda Höglund, Jean Nguyen, Arezou Khoshakhlagh, Sir B. Rafol, John K. Liu, and Sarath D. Gunapala
17.1 Introduction
17.2 The Complementary-Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD)
     17.2.1 CBIRD structure and characterization
     17.2.2 CBIRD contact designs
     17.2.3 Turn-on and dark-current characteristics
     17.2.4 CBIRD focal plane arrays
17.3 Quantum-Dot Barrier Infrared Detector (QD-BIRD)
17.4 Summary
Acknowledgment
References

18. Modulation Transfer Function Measurements of Infrared Focal Plane Arrays
Sarath D. Gunapala, Sir B. Rafol, David Z. Ting, Alexander Soibel, John K. Liu, Arezou Khoshakhlagh, Sam A. Keo, Jason M. Mumolo, Linda Höglund, and Jean Nguyen
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Mid-wavelength Infrared QWIP Device
18.3 MTF of Megapixel MWIR QWIP FPA
18.4 Long-Wavelength Infrared QWIP Device
18.5 MTF of Megapixel LWIR QWIP FPA
18.6 Dual-Band QWIP Device Structure
18.7 Testing and Characterization of Multiband QWIP FPA
18.8 NEΔT and MTF of Megapixel Multiband QWIP FPA
18.9 Complementary-Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) Device Structure
18.10 Testing and Characterization of CBIRD FPA
18.11 MRΔT and MTF of CBIRD FPA
18.12 Conclusion
Acknowledgment
References

19. Quantum Dots for Infrared Focal Plane Arrays Grown by MOCVD
Manijeh Razeghi and Stanley Tsao
19.1 Introduction
     19.1.1 Infrared detection basics
19.2 QDs for Infrared Detection
     19.2.1 Benefits of QDs for ISB detectors
     19.2.2 The potential of QDIPs
19.3 QD Growth
     19.3.1 The formation of QDs in the SK growth mode
     19.3.2 Properties of SK-grown dots and their effect on QDIP performance
19.4 Device Fabrication and Measurement Procedures
19.5 Gallium-Arsenide-based QD Detectors
     19.5.1 InGaAs/InGaP QDIP
     19.5.2 CBIRD First QDIP FPA
     19.5.3 Two-temperature barrier growth for morphology improvement
19.6 Indium-Phosphide-based QD Detectors
     19.6.1 InAs/InP QDIP
     19.6.2 Detection wavelength tuning using QD engineering
     19.6.3 High-operating-temperature QD detector and FPA
     19.6.4 High-operating-temperature FPA
19.7 Conclusion
References

20. Near-Infrared Light Detection using CMOS Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes (SiAPDs)
Ehsan Kamrani, Frédéric Lesage, and Mohamad Sawan
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Background Theory: How SiAPDs Work
20.3 Design Challenges of NIR Detectors
     20.3.1 Modeling and simulation
     20.3.2 Fabrication: standard and dedicated CMOS process
     20.3.3 Premature-edge-breakdown (PEB) effects
     20.3.4 APD structure
20.4 SiAPD Circuitry Design
     20.4.1 Circuitry required for SiAPD-based front ends
     20.4.2 Linear-mode SiAPD front end
     20.4.3 Geiger-mode SiAPD front end
20.5 Optimally Adaptive Control for Low-Noise, Low-Power, and Fast Photodetection
20.6 Conclusion
Acknowledgment
References

21. Modulation-Doped AlGaAs/InGaAs Thermopiles (H-PILEs) for an Uncooled IR FPA Utilizing Integrated HEMT-MEMS Technology
Masayuki Abe, Kian Siong Ang, Hong Wang, and Geok Ing Ng
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Seebeck Effect Consideration
     21.2.1 Seebeck-coefficient diffusion component
     21.2.2 Seebeck-coefficient phonon-drag component
21.3 Device Design Consideration
     21.3.1 Performance of a thermoelectric sensor
     21.3.2 AlGaAs/InGaAs thermopile design
     21.3.3 Scaled-down approach
21.4 Sensor Fabrication Technology
21.5 Measured Sensor Performance and Discussion
21.6 Conclusion and Future Prospects
Acknowledgments
References

22. Spin–Orbit Engineering of Semiconductor Heterostructures
Henri-Jean Drouhin, Federico Bottegoni, Alberto Ferrari, T. L. Hoai Nguyen, Jean-Eric Wegrowe, and Guy Fishman
22.1 Introduction
22.2 General Definition of Current Operators
     22.2.1 Current associated with a quantum-mechanical operator
     22.2.2 Symmetry properties of current operators
22.3 Probability Current Related to an Effective Hamiltonian
     22.3.1 The general nth-order Hamiltonian
     22.3.2 Velocity operator in the presence of spin–orbit interaction
     22.3.3 Velocity and probability-current operators in effective Hamiltonian formalism
22.4 Spin-Current Operator
22.5 BenDaniel–Duke-like Formulation and Boundary Conditions
22.6 Spin-Split Evanescent States in III-V Semiconductors
     22.6.1 Evanescent states
     22.6.2 The [110] direction
     22.6.3 Constant-γ case: solution to the tunneling problem
     22.6.4 Matching conditions
22.7 Conclusion
Appendix
22.A Complete Derivation of the Current Operator
22.B Evanescent Bands in the [110] Direction
22.C Standard Tunneling Case
References

V APPLICATIONS

23. Current Status of Mid-infrared Semiconductor-Laser-based Sensor Technologies for Trace-Gas Sensing Applications
Rafał Lewicki, Mohammad Jahjah, Yufei Ma, Przemysław Stefański, Jan Tarka, Manijeh Razeghi, and Frank K. Tittel
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) for Ethane Detection
     23.2.1 Laser characterization
     23.2.2 Optical sensor architecture
     23.2.3 Experiments and results
23.3 Environmental Detection of Ammonia using an EC-QCL-based C-PAS Sensor Platform
     23.3.1 Sensor configuration and results
23.4 Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS)
     23.4.1 Methane and nitrous oxide detection
     23.4.2 Environmental detection of nitric oxide
     23.4.3 QEPAS-based ppb-level detection of carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide
     23.4.4 Sulfur dioxide experiments
23.5 Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References

24. Application of Quantum Cascade Lasers for Safety and Security
Ulrike Willer, Mario Mordmüller, and Wolfgang Schade
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Pulsed Laser Fragmentation
24.3 Experimental Setup
24.4 Results
24.5 Discussion
24.6 Conclusions
References

25. Broadband-Tunable External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Lasers for Spectroscopy and Standoff Detection
Frank Fuchs, Stefan Hugger, Quankui Yang, Jan Jarvis, Michel Kinzer, Ralf Ostendorf, Christian Schilling, Rachid Driad, Wolfgang Bronner, Andreas Bächle, Rolf Aidam, and Joachim Wagner
25.1 Introduction
     25.1.1 Standoff detection of explosives
     25.1.2 In-line spectroscopy of drinking water
25.2 Eye Safety in the Mid-infrared Spectral Region
25.3 External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser
     25.3.1 Broadband tuning
     25.3.2 Fast wavelength tuning
23.4 Standoff Detection of Explosives
     25.4.1 Backscattering spectroscopy
     25.4.2 Samples
25.5 Hyperspectral Data Analysis
     25.5.1 Adaptive matched subspace detector
     25.5.2 Background endmember extraction
     25.5.3 Reference spectra
     25.5.4 Experimental results
     25.5.5 Larger distances
25.6 Spectroscopy of Hazardous Chemicals in Drinking Water
25.7 Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References

26. Emission Spectroscopy in the Mid-infrared using FTIR Spectrometry
Yong-gang Zhang
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Overall Considerations
26.3 System Configuration
26.4 Demonstrations and Discussion
26.5 Summary and Future Perspectives
Acknowledgments
References

27. Photonic Sensing of Environmental Gaseous Nitrous Acid (HONO): Opportunities and Challenges
Weidong Chen, Rabih Maamary, Xiaojuan Cui, Tao Wu, Eric Fertein, Dorothée Dewaele, Fabrice Cazier, Qiaozhi Zha, Zheng Xu, Tao Wang, Yingjian Wang, Weijun Zhang, Xiaoming Gao, Wenqing Liu, and Fengzhong Dong
27.1 Introduction
27.2 State-of-the-Art Instruments for Measurement of Atmospheric HONO
     27.2.1 Wet chemical analytical methods
     27.2.2 Gas phase spectroscopic analytical methods
27.3 HONO Sample Production and Quantification
     27.3.1 Production of HONO samples in the laboratory
     27.3.2 Quantification of HONO concentration
     27.3.3 HONO losses on absorption cell wall
27.4 Photonic Monitoring using Infrared Laser
     27.4.1 Environmental HONO monitoring by multipass-cell-based long-path-absorption spectroscopy using an 8-μm QCL
     27.4.2 HONO monitoring near 2.8 μm
27.5 Photonic Monitoring using LED-based IBBCCEAS
     27.5.1 Concentration retrieval of multiple absorbers from a structured broadband absorption spectrum
     27.5.2 Determination of cavity mirror reflectivity
     27.5.3 Allan variance
     27.5.4 Instrumental development and application
27.6 Summary and Outlook
Acknowledgments
References

28. Integrated Plasmonic Antennas with Active Optical Devices
John Kohoutek, Ryan Gelfand, and Hooman Mohseni
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM)
28.3 Optical Force
28.4 Deep Subdiffraction Mechanical Frequency and Amplitude Modulation
28.5 Optical Switching via Near-Field Interaction
28.6 Conclusions
References

29. Quantum-Dot Biosensors using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)
James W. Garland, Dinakar Ramadurai, and Siva Sivananthan
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Conjugated QDs
29.3 Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)
29.4 Biosensor using FRET and Antibody-Conjugated QDs: Concept and Bench-top Results
Acknowledgments
29.5 EpiSENSE Prototype Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Airborne Biological Pathogens
     29.5.1 Sensor design
     29.5.2 Testing of the EpiSENSE biosensor
Acknowledgments
29.6 Summary
References

30. Optoelectronic Applications of Monodisperse Carbon Nanomaterials
Heather N. Arnold and Mark C. Hersam
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Monodisperse Carbon Nanomaterials
30.3 Assembly Strategies
30.4 Electronics with Semiconducting SWCNT Films
30.5 Optoelectronics with Semiconducting SWCNT Films
30.6 Applications for Metallic SWCNTs
30.7 Applications of Solution-Processed Graphene
30.8 Summary and Future Outlook
References

COLOR PLATES

31. Design of Radial p–i–n Silicon Nanowires for High-Performance Solar Cells
Binh-Minh Nguyen, Jinkyoung Yoo, Shadi A. Dayeh, Paul Schuele, David Evans, and S. Tom Picraux
31.1 Introduction
31.2 Device Fabrication
31.3 Estimation of Depletion Region
31.4 Optical Absorption Simulation
     31.4.1 Effect of nanowire length
     31.4.2 Effect of pitch size
31.5 Conclusion and Outlook
Acknowledgments
References

32. Nanostructured Electrode Interfaces for Energy Applications
Palash Gangopadhyay, Kaushik Balakrishnan, and Nasser Peyghambarian
32.1 Introduction
32.2 0D Nanostructured Electrodes
32.3 0D Nanostructured Electrodes
32.4 2D Nanostructures and Nanostructured Electrodes
     32.4.1 2D nanomaterials in energy storage
     32.4.2 Supercapacitors
     32.4.3 Batteries
     32.4.4 2D nanostructures for flow-based energy harvesting
     32.4.5 Fabrication of nanostructured electrodes via nanoimprinting
32.5 3D Nanostructures
     32.5.1 3D nanoarchitectures for energy harvesting
     32.5.2 Sustainable integrated 3D powering solutions
32.6 Concluding Remarks
Acknowledgment
References

Index

Foreword

Twenty years ago, I met with Prof. Klaus von Klitzing and Prof. Manijeh Razeghi and other top researchers from around the world for the inauguration of a new Center for Quantum Devices at Northwestern University. A full two decades of research later, we have chosen the occasion of the International Conference on Infrared Optoelectronics (MIOMD-XI) to join together again at Northwestern to celebrate all of the accomplishments of the intervening years. This conference not only marks the latest progress in new materials and devices that followed from my own work in this field, it also highlighted the richest accomplishments of a full spectrum of prominent world-class scientists.

With the success of this conference, it was decided that a more permanent volume should commemorate the achievements presented there, so as cochair of MIOMD-XI, I am happy to announce the occasion in this foreword. This book collects the best and highest-impact talks from that conference, develops them into chapters, and collects them into a single condensed volume representing the current state-of-the-art in infrared materials and devices.

The chapters in this book bear witness to how far we have come since the invention of manmade semiconductor superlattices in 1969. What started with the new physics of the Esaki tunnel diode has matured into nanoscale engineering of semiconductor superlattices to create whole synthetic band structures. After years of considerable effort to bring this technology to maturity, we now see the results of this formidable new science in almost every electronic and photonic device that we encounter. We see it in the electronics that flood the consumer market, the communication infrastructure that is rapidly shrinking our world, and in the specialized components such as quantum cascade lasers or type-II superlattice cameras used for defense and security—this is truly the age of nanotechnology. I look back with wonder at all of the exciting developments of the last 44 years and can only imagine where the future will take this technology and what exciting discoveries await.

Leo Esaki
University of Tokyo
Komaba, Meguro, Japan

Leo Esaki is a Japanese physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 with Ivar Giaever and Brian David Josephson for his discovery of the phenomenon of electron tunneling. He is known for his invention of the Esaki diode, which exploited that phenomenon. He studied physics at the University of Tokyo where he received his B.S. in 1947 and his Ph.D. in 1959. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for his research conducted around 1967 at Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo (now known as Sony). He moved to the United States in 1960 and joined the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, where he became an IBM Fellow in 1967. While at IBM he pioneered the development of the semiconductor superlattice. Subsequently, he served as the President of various Japanese universities, for example, University of Tsukuba and Shibaura Institute of Technology. Since 2006, he has been serving as the President of the Yokohama College of Pharmacy. Esaki is also the recipient of The International Center in New York's Award of Excellence, the Order of Culture (1974) and the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun (1998).

Preface

Nature is nano.

Nature starts with the atom, the building block of all matter, and works hand-in-hand with her partner the photon, the piece of light that communicates energy from one atom to another.When nature binds atoms together or creates physical structures in the micro- and nano-range, the combinations interact differently with light, providing nature with a rich palette of colors to decorate the world around us,while also giving rise to the functional complexity of nature.The wings of a butterfly, the feather of a peacock, the sheen of a pearl—all of these are examples of nature's photonic crystals: nanostructured arrangements of atoms that capture and recast the colors of the rainbow with iridescent beauty. These diverse combinations of microstructures and atoms in molecules, crystals, proteins, and cells on the nanoscale eventually give rise to ourselves, sentient beings, who, in turn, strive to explain the natural world that we see around us.

As our tools to manipulate matter reach ever smaller length scales, we, too, are able to join in the game of discovery in the nano-world—a game that nature has long since mastered. We are able to get inside light, on the scale that atoms do, and create assemblies of atoms that intercept and launch photons according to the structure we design. We are able to shine light of any color in beams that can travel to the moon and back. We are able to create crystals of matter that allow us to see even invisible light in the infrared and ultraviolet spectrum, and we can enhance our own natural senses. We can map the universe with telescopes that see invisible colors, and we can probe the human body to find cures and treat diseases. We can communicate with each other faster, over ever larger distances, sharing ever more information.

As we marvel at our achievements thus far in the nano-world, and as we let our imaginations dive into realms that yesterday seemed too fantastic to consider, we must pause to remember who arrived here long before us and who still governs the limits of our ambitions.

Let us pay our due respects to wonder at nature as we contemplate the wonder of nanotechnology.

Klaus von Klitzing
Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research
Stuttgart, Germany

Klaus von Klitzing is a German physicist known for discovery of the integer quantum Hall effect, for which he was awarded the 1985 Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1962, von Klitzing passed the Abitur at Artland Gymnasium in Quakenbrück, Germany, before studying physics at the Braunschweig University of Technology, where he received his diploma in 1969. He continued his studies at the University of Würzburg, completing his Ph.D. thesis "Galvanomagnetic Properties of Tellurium in Strong Magnetic Fields" in 1972, and habilitation in 1978. This work was performed at the Clarendon Laboratory in Oxford and the Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory in France, where he continued to work until becoming a professor at the Technical University of Munich in 1980. Von Klitzing has been a director of the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart since 1985. Today, von Klitzing's research focuses on the properties of low-dimensional electronic systems, typically in low temperatures and in high magnetic fields.

Introduction

Nature offers us a full assortment of atoms, but nanoengineering is required to put them together in an elegant way to realize functional structures not found in nature. To design new optical properties, one must nanoengineer structures on a length scale smaller than the wavelength of light. To design new electronic properties, one must nanoengineer structures on a length scale smaller than the wavelength of the electron. In the end, our ability to control material composition and shape on nanometer length scales is what gives us the ability to achieve technological goals that transcend the properties of naturally occurring materials.

A particularly rich playground for nanotechnology is the so-called III-V semiconductors, made of atoms from columns III and V of the periodic table, and constituting compounds with many useful optical and electronic properties in their own right. Guided by highly accurate simulations of the electronic structure, modern semiconductor optoelectronic devices are literally made atom by atom using advanced growth technology such as molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition to combine these materials in ways to give them new properties that neither material has on its own. Modern mastery of materials growth and characterization with the help of such techniques allows high-power and highly efficient functional devices to be made, such as those that convert electrical energy into coherent light or detect light of any wavelength and convert it into an electrical signal.

The cover of this volume shows an example of how nanoengineering can realize an optoelectronic structure originally proposed by Esaki and Tsu—a structure that signaled the very dawn of the age of nanotechnology. This so-called superlattice is a stack of repeated nanolayers of two different semiconductors GaSb and InAs, together making up a new artificial material with properties that transcend those of either material alone. As the figure shows, this material can be grown today with atomic-layer accuracy to detect infrared light. Then nanofabrication technology can carve out individual devices from such a material and connect them in an array to make the pixels of a focal plane array, nanotechnology's version of a retina. Finally, attaching this to readout circuitry and mounting it behind a lens in a cooled chamber culminates in an infrared camera that sees the heat signal given off by the same hands that crafted the device from the atom up.

In a broader scope, this volume collects the latest world-class research breakthroughs that have brought quantum engineering to an unprecedented level, creating light detectors and emitters over an extremely wide spectral range from 0.2 to 300 μm. Devices include light-emitting diodes in the deep-ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. In the infrared, compounds can be nanoengineered to create quantum cascade lasers and focal plane arrays based on quantum dots or repeated layers of one material inside another. These are fast becoming the choice of technology in crucial applications such as environmental monitoring and space exploration. Last but not least, on the far-infrared end of the electromagnetic spectrum, also known as the terahertz region, new nanotechnology allows emission of terahertz waves in a compact device at room temperature. Continued effort is being devoted to all of the abovementioned areas, with the intention to develop smart technologies that meet the current challenges in environment, health, security, and energy. This volume documents the latest contributions to the world of semiconductor nanoscale optoelectronics.

The research efforts represented here share a common genesis in the MIOMD-XI conference at Northwestern University, hosted by the Center for Quantum Devices in September 2012. The novelty and quality of the work presented at that conference inspired their collection into this special volume, representing both the state-of-the-art and the future trends of nanotechnology.

It is a privilege to be able to introduce these works here for posterity so that they might mark our remarkable progress in the past decades and usher in the wonders of what nanotechnology holds in store for our future.

Manijeh Razeghi
Center for Quantum Devices
Electrical Engineering & Computer Science Department
Evanston, Illinois, USA

Manijeh Razeghi received the Doctorat d'État es Sciences Physiques from the Université de Paris, France, in 1980. After heading the Exploratory Materials Lab at Thomson-CSF (France), she joined Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, as a Walter P. Murphy Professor and Director of the Center for Quantum Devices in Fall 1991, where she created the undergraduate and graduate program in solid state engineering. She is one of the leading scientists in the field of semiconductor science and technology, pioneering the development and implementation of major modern epitaxial techniques such as MOCVD, VPE, gas MBE, and MOMBE for the growth of entire compositional ranges of III-V compound semiconductors. She has authored or coauthored more than 1000 papers, more than 30 book chapters, and 15 books, including the textbooks Technology of Quantum Devices, Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. (2010), Fundamentals of Solid State Engineering, 3rd Edition, Springer Science+ Business Media, Inc. (2009), and The MOCVD Challenge, 2nd Edition, CRC Press (2010), which discuss some of her pioneering work in InP-GaInAsP and GaAs-GaInAsP based systems. She holds 50 U.S. patents and has given more than 1000 invited and plenary talks. Her current research interest is in nanoscale optoelectronic quantum devices.

An Imaging Perspective from the Nanometer Scale

Advances in material science at the nanometer scale are opening new doors in the area of optics and electronics. The ability to manipulate atoms and photons, and fabricate new material structures offers opportunities to realize new emitters, detectors, optics, ever-shrinking electronics, and integration of optics and electronics. These developments are making a big impact in optoelectronics and integrated circuits, among other fields. In particular, imaging technology has the opportunity to leverage these developments to produce new products for military, industrial, medical, security, and other consumer applications.

The infusion of nanotechnology in modern times has already begun. These advances are clearly evident in the visible-wavelength band due to pixel scaling and nanometer-scale CMOS technology. CMOS cameras are available in cell phones and many other consumer products. Similarly, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and quantum dots are making inroads in the displays and visible camera market. Advances in the infrared wavelengths for imaging technology have been slow due to a lack of market volume and many technological barriers in detectors and optical materials, as well as fundamental limits imposed by the scaling laws of traditional optics. However, the advances in nanometer-scale engineering coupled with innovations in photonics, optics, focal plane arrays, and computation are paving the way for new approaches in infrared research and development. There is, of course, much room for improvement in both the visible and infrared imaging technologies. Further advancement in imaging systems requires solutions for many technical challenges related to wide field of view, resolution, pixel pitch, optics, multicolor, and form factor. Innovation is also required to lower the cost of imagers. These solutions can be realized through progress in nanometer-scale science and engineering.

Traditional research and development activities in infrared photodetectors have been largely focused on pursuing bulk or epitaxially grown semiconductor layers that are reticulated to form detector arrays. Conventional photodetectors such as p–n junctions and p–i–n photodiodes are some of the depletion-mode devices widely used in photoreceivers and focal plane arrays. The optics is designed as multiple lenses made from bulk materials and aligned in a barrel. However, traditional approaches are unlikely to yield large improvements in infrared camera development. Specific limitations are large format, multiple colors, and wide-band detector design with high resolution, which require incompatible materials for different colors, scaling of pixel size, and wide-band optics, to list a few. As a consequence, infrared cameras are large and expensive, and generally limited to military applications. A paradigm shift in the way components of cameras and other optoelectronic devices are made is needed to fulfill the future requirements. This shift in approach will make smaller and lower-cost infrared cameras, lasers, and many other optoelectronic products available for both civilian and military markets.

Nanotechnology is paving the way for a new dimension involving more versatile material designs that enable large format, multicolor, and wide-band infrared focal plane arrays. One example is the type-II superlattice approach that uses a set of different compound semiconductor materials to design multiple band detectors on a single substrate. The type-II superlattice technique takes advantage of nanometer-scale stacking of different exotic materials to tailor the bandgap. The nanometer-scale manipulation of different exotic materials, therefore, allows for a new material design whose optical properties can be modified from the individual bulk material. Thus, an artificially created new "lattice structure" can be formed in mixed semiconductor crystals, allowing for bandgap engineering. Another example is the nanometer-scale structuring of a thin compound semiconductor material to fabricate a photonic crystal. Subwavelength-sized semiconductor pillar arrays within a single detector can be designed and structured as an ensemble of photon trapping units to significantly increase absorption and quantum efficiency for a wide band of wavelengths. Each sub-element in each pixel can be a 3D photonic structure fabricated using either a top-down or bottom-up process. The sub-element architecture can be of different shapes such as pyramidal, sinusoidal, or rectangular. Additionally, the sub-elements themselves can have p–n junctions. The motivation for this design is to significantly increase photon trapping of a wide range of wavelengths, and their subsequent absorption and generation of electron–hole pairs in the absorber material. Such a design also leads to a reduction in the material volume and, thus, a decrease in the dark current. The subwavelength photonic trap allows for high absorption and increases the signal-to-noise ratio. Metamaterials to manipulate light is yet another technique leveraged by nanotechnology and can be used to develop monolithic filters directly on wide-band detectors. Such an arrangement offers a real shift in the way infrared focal plane arrays are designed. Nanometer-scale structuring also has merit in solar cells, lasers, and light-emitting diodes. Bandgap engineering and nanometer-scale structuring both modify the fundamental building block of the materials.

Nanotechnology is making a significant impact in the optics field. The advances in nanophotonics and the associated physics of surface plasmon-polaritons and subwavelength-aperture extraordinary optical transmission will allow detector size to shrink smaller than the wavelength it detects. SPPs are electromagnetic excitations on the surface of a metal whose electromagnetic field is confined to the vicinity of the dielectric–metal interface, leading to a significant enhancement of the electromagnetic field. This field enhancement facilitates incident light to be funneled through subwavelength apertures exhibiting extraordinary optical transmission. Nanophotonic designs can be used to couple photons to very thin and tiny detectors. These nanometer-scale optical designs would make it possible to make very high-density, large-format focal plane arrays. Advances in the aforementioned nanotechnology, if realized with high efficiency, will open doors for infrared cameras with unprecedented form factors and functionality. These cameras could be as small as CMOS cell-phone cameras and yet provide multicolor coverage of a broad range of wavelengths in a single unit.

Efforts are underway to integrate optically efficient compound materials into an electronically mature common platform such as silicon to produce very efficient hybrid optoelectronics products. Incompatibility in different material systems has been the primary barrier in identifying a unitary host material for large-scale integration of electronics and photonics to produce efficient optoelectronic systems. Over the last ten or more years, developments and advances in the bottom-up synthesis of 1D nanowires and colloidal quantum dots with precise control on the chemical compositions, morphologies, and sizes have enabled researchers to fabricate novel nanometer-scale devices such as photodetectors, displays, nanowire field effect transistors, light-emitting diodes, complementary inverters, complex logic gates, lasers, and chemical sensors. Simultaneously, the current state-of-the-art silicon CMOS technology has already been scaled down to nanometer feature sizes and is approaching the physical lower limit of beneficial scaling. These trends motivate a search for new technologies that may allow widespread and cost-effective integration of nanometer-scale components in devices and circuits for electronic as well as optoelectronic applications. For instance, quantum dots of different sizes respond to different wavelengths. Direct integration of these quantum dots on silicon integrated circuits opens the door for a new approach to focal plane arrays and infrared cameras.

Nanometer-scale architectures play an important role in nature. Many biological systems exhibit interesting structures that manipulate light. For example, the Morpho butterflies are known for their brilliant colors arising from the nanometer nature of the scales on their wings. The Melanophila acuminata beetle, pythons, and other species use their thermal pits to sense infrared light. These thermal pits are made up of nanometer-sized pigments. Using quantum dots, bio-inspired nanometer engineering can lead to fabricating artificial thermal pits similar to beetles' or pythons' thermal pits. Biology, therefore, offers rich insight into the science and wonders of light interaction at the nanometer scale.

There is an unlimited potential in nanotechnology. Scientists have only scratched the surface. Progress in nanometer-scale fabrication will drive low-cost manufacturing and continue to open new doors in optoelectronics technology. This volume, The Wonder of Nanotechnology: Quantum Optoelectronic Devices and Applications, edited by Manijeh Razeghi, Leo Esaki, and Klaus von Klitzing presents the latest developments in the application of nanotechnology to modern semiconductor optoelectronic devices. The coeditor Prof. Razeghi is a Walter P. Murphy Professor and Director of the Center for Quantum Devices at Northwestern University. She has pioneered nanometer-scale architectures in semiconductor technology. Her research in quantum materials has culminated in various technologies such as type-II strained-layer superlattice infrared detectors, lasers, and terahertz technology, to name a few. This volume is also blessed with the participation of Nobel Prize winners, Leo Esaki and Klaus von Klitzing. Their contributions in quantum physics have revolutionized nanometer-scale science and have paved the way for nanotechnology to advance. The collection of research efforts represented here provides a glimpse of a wide range of activities in the optoelectronics science motivated by nanotechnology. The collection is compiled from a recent MIOMD-XI conference held at Northwestern University, Center for Quantum Devices in September 2012.

Nibir K. Dhar
Program Manager
Defense Advanced Research Project Agency
Arlington, Virginia, USA

Nibir K. Dhar received the Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Maryland in 1997. After heading the Electro-Optics and Photonics branch at the Army Research Laboratory, he joined the Microsystems Technology Office at Defense Advanced Research Project Agency as a program manager in 2008. He is one of the leading scientists in the field of infrared imaging science and technology. He has pioneered the development of infrared focal plane arrays on silicon substrates for large-format-camera technology. He has developed and managed numerous research projects in epitaxial and bandgap-engineered materials including type-II superlattice, quantum dots, quantum wires, detectors, lasers, and systems design. His current efforts at DARPA have led to novel architectures in focal plane array designs for wide-band and multi-color, pixel sizes at subwavelengths, wafer scale optics, wafer scale IR cameras, novel system architectures for gigapixel-class cameras, and bio-inspired nanometer-scale sensor technologies. These efforts have culminated into a new set of infrared camera technologies and tools that are revolutionizing the way focal plane arrays, optics, and cameras are produced. Dr. Dhar has authored numerous papers and chapters on infrared technology, served as chairperson on numerous conferences and committees, and served as coeditor of several conference proceedings. He mentored and served on eight doctoral thesis advisory committees on various subjects. He is also Fellow of SPIE.


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