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Spie Press Book

Introduction to Optical Testing
Author(s): Joseph M. Geary
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Book Description

This volume in the SPIE Tutorial Text series presents a practical approach to optical testing, with emphasis on techniques, procedures, and instrumentation rather than mathematical analysis. The author provides the reader with a basic understanding of the measurements made and the tools used to make those measurements. Detailed information is given on how to measure and characterize imaging systems, perform optical bench measurements to determine first- and third-order properties of optical systems, set up and operate a Fizeau interferometer and evaluate fringe data, conduct beam diagnostics (such as wavefront sensing), and perform radiometric calibrations.

Book Details

Date Published: 15 September 1993
Pages: 170
ISBN: 9780819413772
Volume: TT15

Table of Contents
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Preface
Chapter 1. Optical Bench Measurements on Imaging Systems
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Effective Focal Length
1.2.1 Focal Length via T-Bar Nodal Slide
1.2.2 Focal Length via Magnification
1.3 f-number
1.4 Axial Color
1.5 Field Curvature and Distortion
1.6 Transmission
1.7 Relative Illumination Falloff
1.8 Veiling Glare
1.9 Thermal Behavior7
1.10 References
Appendix 1.1 Basic Geometrical Optics
Appendix 1.2 Relative Illumination Falloff
Chapter 2. Aberration and Resolution Measurements
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Spherical Aberration
2.2.1 Annular Zone Method
2.2.2 Minimum Blur Method
2.2.3 Transverse Ray Method
2.2.4 Axial Intensity Method
2.3 Astigmatism
2.4 Coma
2.5 Image Resolution
2.5.1 Resolution Tests Using Film
2.5.2 Aerial Resolution Tests
2.6 Modulation Transfer Function Tests
2.6.1 MTF via Sinusoidal Targets
2.6.2 MTF via Slit Scans of the PSF
2.6.3 MTF via Knife Edge Scan
2.7 References
Chapter 3. Interferometric Testing of Optical Systems
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Mathematical Description of Aberrations
3.3 Fizeau Interferometer
3.4 Analyzing an Interferogram
3.5 Testing a Lens
3.6 Retrace Error
3.7 Collecting and Handling Data
3.8 Environmental Constraints
3.9 Mounting
3.10 References
Appendix 3.1 Testing Configurations Using a Fizeau Interferometer
Chapter 4. Wavefront Sensors
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Principles of Operation
4.3 Direct Measure of W(x,y): Point Diffraction Interferometer
4.4 Measures of Differential Wavefront (dW)
4.4.1 Laser Wavefront Analyzer
4.4.2 Lateral Shear
4.4.3 Rotating Grating
4.5 Measures of Transverse Ray Error (T)
4.5.1 Shack-Hartmann Test
4.5.2 SHAPE
4.6 References
Chapter 5. General Light Beam Measurements
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Power-Related Measurements
5.2.1 Far-Field Measurements
5.2.2 Near-Field Measurements
5.3 Color
5.4 Coherence Measurements
5.4.1 Temporal Coherence
5.4.2 Spatial Coherence
5.4.3 Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
5.5 Polarization
5.6 Directionality (Pointing): Beam Tilt Sensing
5.7 References
Chapter 6. Component Measurements
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Radius of Curvature
6.2.1 Radius of Curvature Using Interferometry
6.2.2 Spherometry
6.2.3 Estimating Curvature by Eye
6.3 Refractive Index
6.3.1 Critical Angle
6.3.2 Brewster's Angle
6.3.3 Focus Shift
6.4 Spectral Transmission
6.5 Collimation
6.5.1 Beam Diameter vs Distance
6.5.2 Autocollimation
6.5.3 Shear Plate
6.6 Surface Roughness
6.7 Light Scattering
6.8 Ellipsometry
6.9 Instruments for (Black and White) Photographic Film
6.9.1 Sensitometer
6.9.2 Densitometer
6.9.3 Microdensitometer
6.10 References
Index

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