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Pyroelectric Materials: Infrared Detectors, Particle Accelerators, and Energy Harvesters
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Book Description

Materials have played a revolutionary role in the development of the modern technological age, and their various applications have made our lives increasingly comfortable here on our home, the beautiful blue planet Earth. With the application of heat, pyroelectric materials produce electric current, qualifying them for use in uncooled infrared detectors. Infrared detectors are encountered in a vast number of applications in both war and peace—many of their uses are routine to us in everyday life.

With the advent of new technologies, thermal sensing and imaging have become useful diagnostic tools for medical, industrial, and military applications. In medicine, infrared thermal imaging is applied to detect vascular disorders and arthritic rheumatisms as well as to monitor muscular performances and make preclinical diagnoses of breast cancer. Recently, these materials have been used in nuclear particle generation, and their usefulness in energy harvesting is currently under exploration.

This monograph contains comprehensive cutting-edge information on pyroelectric materials and their preparation, properties, and applications, such as uncooled wideband infrared detectors, particle generators, and ambient energy harvesters. The complete lifecycle of a pyroelectric material is presented here for readers—from the theory of operation, to structure, and processing and applications—providing a cohesive overview of all of the necessary concepts, including theoretical background and current developments in the field of pyroelectric devices. It describes the preparation, structure, properties and figures of merit for practical pyroelectric materials such as triglycine sulfate, lead zirconate titanate, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, barium strontium titanate, lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate, polyvinylidene fluoride, zinc oxide, and others, including the merits and demerits of their use in devices.


Book Details

Date Published: 24 September 2013
Pages: 202
ISBN: 9780819493316
Volume: PM231

Table of Contents
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1. Fundamentals of Pyroelectric Materials
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Classification of Dielectric Materials
1.3 Important Dielectric Parameters
      1.3.1 Electric dipole moment
      1.3.2 Polar and nonpolar dielectric materials
      1.3.3 Electric polarization
      1.3.4 Electric displacement or flux density D, dielectric constant ε, and electric susceptibility χ
      1.3.5 Spontaneous polarization
1.4 Electrostrictive Effect
1.5 Piezoelectric Phenomena
1.6 Pyroelectric Phenomenon
      1.6.1 Pyroelectric current generation
1.7 Ferroelectric Phenomena
      1.7.1 Ferroelectric domains
      1.7.2 Ferroelectric hysteresis
      1.7.3 Poling
      1.7.4 Paraelectric effect
1.8 Conclusions
References

2. Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors
2.1 Introduction
2.2 IR Fundamentals
2.3 IR Detectors
2.4 Pyroelectric Infrared Detector
      2.4.1 IR-detector operation
      2.4.2 Pyroelectric-detector responsivity
      2.4.3 Noise-equivalent power
      2.4.4 Detectivity
      2.4.5 Noise
2.5 Materials Performance Parameters
      2.5.1 Material figures of merit
2.6 Structural Design
      2.6.1 Characteristics of absorbers
      2.6.2 Single-element detector design
      2.6.3 Thin-film-based detectors
      2.6.4 Hybrid focal-plane arrays
      2.6.5 Monolith-integrated focal-plane array
      2.6.6 Advanced lithium-tantalate-detector array
      2.6.7 Trap detector
      2.6.8 Resonant detector
      2.6.9 Sirco TFLT detector
2.7 Pyroelectric-Detector Applications
2.8 Conclusions
References

3. Processing of Key Pyroelectric Materials
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Bulk Single Crystals
      3.2.1 Growth of crystals from solution
      3.2.2 Crystal growth from melt
3.3 Preparation of Ceramics
3.4 Thin-Film Deposition
      3.4.1 Nonsolution deposition
      3.4.2 Solution deposition
3.5 Thick-Film Fabrication
      3.5.1 Thick-film-transfer technology (screen printing)
3.6 Fabrication of Polymer–Ceramic Composite Precursors
3.7 Conclusions
References

4. Important Pyroelectrics: Properties and Performance Parameters
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Important Pyroelectrics
      4.2.1 Triglycine sulfate crystals and their isomorphs
      4.2.2 Modified lead titanate
      4.2.3 Lead zirconate titanate
      4.2.4 Lithium tantalate and lithium niobate
      4.2.5 Barium strontium titanate materials system
      4.2.6 Strontium barium niobate
      4.2.7 Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT)
4.3 Organic Pyroelectrics
4.4 Pyroelectric–Polymer Composites
4.5 Other Pyroelectric Materials
      4.5.1 Aluminum nitride (AlN)
      4.5.2 Gallium nitride (GaN)
      4.5.3 Zinc oxide (ZnO)
4.6 Lead-free Pyroelectric Ceramics
4.7 Conclusions
References

5. Innovative Techniques for Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Multilayer Structures
5.3 Compositionally Graded Structures
5.4 Pyroelectric Heterostructures
5.5 Use of Nanoporosity
5.6 Novel Designs and Techniques
5.7 Conclusions
References

6. Pyroelectric Particle Generators
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Electrostatistics of a Pyroelectric Accelerator
      6.2.1 One-crystal system
      6.2.2 Two-crystal system
6.3 D–D Nuclear Fusion and Neutron Generators
6.4 Electron and Ion Emitters
6.5 X-ray Generators
6.6 Applications
6.7 Conclusions
References

7. Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Energy Transfer
      7.2.1 One-crystal system
      7.2.2 Two-crystal system
      7.2.3 Phase transitions
      7.2.4 Pyroelectric performance
7.3 Thermodynamic Cycles for Pyroelectric Energy Conversion
      7.3.1 Heat and work fundamentals
      7.3.2 Two-crystal system
      7.3.3 Carnot cycle for polarization–electric field (PE) cycles
      7.3.4 Ericsson cycle for PE cycle
      7.3.5 Lenoir cycle for PE cycle
      7.3.6 Pyroelectric energy conversion based on the Clingman cycle
      7.3.7 Pyroelectric energy conversion based on the Olsen cycle
7.4 Pyroelectric Energy Conversion and Harvesting: Recent Progress
      7.4.1 Pyroelectric energy harvesting based on the direct pyroelectric effect
      7.4.2 Pyroelectric energy harvesting based on thermodynamic cycles
7.5 Conclusions
References

Appendix
Major Pyroelectric Manufacturing Companies

Index


Foreword

Materials have played a revolutionary role in the development of the modern technological age, and their various applications have made our lives increasingly comfortable here on our home, the beautiful blue planet Earth. With the application of heat, pyroelectric materials produce electric current, qualifying them for use in uncooled infrared detectors. Infrared detectors are encountered in a vast number of applications in both war and peace. Many of their uses are routine to us in everyday life—for example, the pyroelectric intruder switch-cum-sensor is the key to most domestic burglar alarm systems.

With the advent of new technologies, thermal sensing and imaging have become useful diagnostic tools for medical, industrial, and military applications. In medicine, infrared thermal imaging is applied to detect vascular disorders and arthritic rheumatisms as well as to monitor muscular performances and make preclinical diagnoses of breast cancer. Recently, these materials have been used in nuclear particle generation, and their usefulness in energy harvesting is currently under exploration.

This monograph is the work of Drs. A. K. Batra and M. D. Aggarwal, two of the most prolific scholars and accomplished researchers in the field. Both have significantly contributed to the advancement of knowledge in pyroelectric materials. We are fortunate to have their expertise as part of the faculty of Alabama A&M University (AAMU), and we are grateful that they have been able to devote extra time and effort toward the preparation of this important contribution to pyroelectric literature. I have no doubt that this thought-provoking text will inspire further progress in the fascinating and challenging field of pyroelectrics.

Andrew Hugine Jr., Ph.D.
President
Alabama A&M University
Normal, Alabama
August 2013


Preface

This monograph contains comprehensive cutting-edge information on pyroelectric materials and their preparation, properties, and applications, such as uncooled wideband infrared detectors, particle generators, and ambient energy harvesters. The complete lifecycle of a pyroelectric material is presented here for readers—from the theory of operation, to structure, and processing and applications—providing a cohesive overview of all of the necessary concepts, including theoretical background and current developments in the field of pyroelectric devices. It describes the preparation, structure, properties and figures of merit for practical pyroelectric materials such as triglycine sulfate, lead zirconate titanate, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, barium strontium titanate, lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate, polyvinylidene fluoride, zinc oxide, and others, including the merits and demerits of their use in devices.

This monograph begins with a brief overview of pyroelectricity, including the nature of a unique class of smart materials and their classification on the basis of crystal classes, namely, ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, and pyroelectrics. A list of important materials and their applications is also provided. Pyroelectric/ferroelectric phenomena are described in the context of their applications in infrared detectors and energy harvesting.

The book goes on to discuss the mechanisms, operation, and theory of pyroelectric-infrared detectors in detail. Both material figures of merit and material performance are evaluated with a focus on the operational mode of a detector. Design and fabrication techniques for obtaining the highest performance in an infrared detector are presented in detail.

Next, the growth and fabrication of key pyroelectric materials in various forms is covered, including bulk single crystals, polycrystalline ceramics, thin films, thick films, and composites. Based on applicability and requirements, crystal growth techniques are illustrated for nonsolution deposition such as sputtering, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition, as well as solution deposition such as sol-gel, metalorganic, spin-coating pyrolysis, and screen printing.

Structures and physical properties of important pyroelectrics are also explored including reviews of current detector performance parameters. The following materials are evaluated: triglycine sulfate, lithium niobate, lithium tantalate, lead-magnesium niobate/lead titanate, lead zirconate titanate, lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate, strontium barium niobate, zinc oxide, gallium phosphide, organic polymers such as PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE), and composites and other non-lead-based materials. Unique and innovative techniques that have shown the ability to enhance pyroelectric performance are also explored.

The exclusive property of change in electrical polarization resulting from a temperature gradient that causes a charge to build on crystal surfaces gives rise to electrostatic potential and creates an electric field capable of accelerating charged particles to energies approximately hundreds of kiloelectron volts. This phenomenon has recently been applied to nuclear fusion, the generation of neutron, electron, and ion emitters, as well as the generation of x rays. Particle generators are presented diagrammatically with respective principles, theories, and applications.

The fundamentals and principles of energy harvesting via linear and nonlinear properties of pyroelectrics/ferroelectrics are also provided along with an overview of various materials and techniques that are currently being explored for their energy harvesting potential including mathematical modeling.

Additionally, the appendix provides a list of pyroelectric-detector manufacturing companies, imaging devices, and related products and services.

Thoroughly compiled, this monograph will be of benefit to graduate students, engineers, and scientists as a comprehensive guide to modern pyroelectric science and technology, focusing on the analysis and development of infrared detectors, nuclear particle generators, and energy harvesters for commercial, medical, industrial, military, and space applications. We hope that the scope of information will also guide and motivate engineering and science students to initiate new research for the development of innovative pyroelectric devices. For all technical contacts, suggestions, corrections, or exchanges of information, the reader is advised to contact the authors via email.

ashok.batra@aamu.edu
mohan.aggarwal@aamu.edu
Ashok K. Batra
Mohan D. Aggarwal
August 2013



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